Chemical Properties of Elements in CSV file

Recently I needed to collect a lot of properties of the elements of the Periodic Table for an Android app that I was working on.

I have compiled all of those in a CSV and XLX file and sharing them here for anyone who might find them useful.

I would also appreciate it if anyone would add more to it. So leave a comment here if you have any modifications/suggestions/additions that could be made to this resource.

CSV linkchemicalProperties

XLX link: Chemical Elements Properties

I am also embedding a table here, for those who want to have a look at it online.

Atomic NumberSymbolNameAtomic MassElectronic ConfigurationDiscovery DateDiscoverergroup blockStandard StateOxidation StateBonding TypeAtomic Radius (A)Ionic Radius (A)Covalent Radius (A)Van-der-Walls Radius (A)Crystal Radius (A)Ionization EnergyKnown IsotopesDecay ModesColorBlockElectron AffinityElectro negativityGroupPeriodMelting PointBoiling PointAbsolute Melting PointAbsolute Boiling PointDensityDescriptionElectrons per shellElectronic Shell Diagram
1HHydrogen1.00794(4)1s11766Cavendishnonmetalgas-1, 1diatomic0.530.250.371.20.11312 kJ/mol1H, 2H, 3H, 4H, 5H, 6H, 7HN/AColorlesss72.8 kJ/mol2.211-259,1 °C -252.87 °C14.01 K20.28 K0.0899 g/lHydrogen is a chemical element. Its atomic number is 1, which makes it the simplest, known element in the entire universe.Hydrogen is the true primordial substance, the first atom produced after the big bang. All chemical elements were formed from hydrogen by the processes of nuclear fusion.1
2HeHelium4.002602(2)1s21895Ramsay and Clevenoble gasgasatomic0.310.310.321.4N/A2372.3, 5250.5 kJ/mol3He, 4He, 5He, 6He, 7He, 8He, 9He, 10HeN/AColorlessp0 kJ/molN/A181-272,2 °C -268.93 °CN/A4.22 K0.1785 g/lHelium is a chemical element. It has the chemical symbol He, atomic number 2 and atomic weight of about 4.002602. There are 9 isotopes of helium, only two of which are stable. These are 3He and 4He. 4He is by far the most common isotope.Helium is called a noble gas, because it does not regularly mix with other chemicals and form new compounds. It has the lowest boiling point of all the elements. It is the second most common element in the universe, after hydrogen, and has no color or smell. However, Helium has a blue-ish, neon color when being burnt with fire. Helium does not usually react with anything else. Astronomers discovered helium in 1868. They found that it was in the Sun before it was found on Earth. Because of where it was found, its name comes from the Greek word for Sun, helios.Helium is used to fill balloons and airships because it is lighter than air, and does not burn or react, meaning it is normally safe for using it in that way. It is also used in some kinds of light bulbs. People also breathe it in to make their voices sound higher than they normally do as a joke, but this is extremely dangerous if they breathe in too much, since it can kill them because they are not breathing normal air. Breathing too much helium can also cause long-term effects to vocal cords. It can be created through the process of nuclear fusion in the sun we are currently trying to harness nuclear fusion as a form of power but this is still at an early stage because the sun can quantum tunnel enough because of its huge size). During this process, four Hydrogen atoms are fused together to form one Helium atom.2
3LiLithium6.941(2)[He] 2s11817Arfvedsonalkali metalsolid1metallic1.671.451.341.820.9520.2, 7298.1, 11815 kJ/mol3Li, 4Li, 5Li, 6Li, 7Li, 8Li, 9Li, 10Li, 11Li, 12LiN/ASilvers59.6 kJ/mol0.9812180,5 °C 1342 °C453.69 K1615 K0.535 g/cm3Lithium (from Greek lithos 'stone') is a soft, silver-white metal with symbol Li. It is the third chemical element in the periodic table. This means that it has 3 protons in its nucleus and 3 electrons around it. Its atomic number is 3. Its mass number is 6.94. It has two common isotopes, 6Li and 7Li. 7Li is more common. 92.5% of lithium is 7Li. Lithium is a soft silvery metal that is very reactive. It is used in lithium batteries and certain medicines.2, 1
4BeBeryllium9.012182(3)[He] 2s21797Vauquelinalkaline earth metalsolid2metallic1.121.050.9N/A0.41899.5, 1757.1, 14848.7, 21006.6 kJ/mol5Be, 6Be, 7Be, 8Be, 9Be, 10Be, 11Be, 12Be, 13Be, 14Be, 15Be, 16BeN/ASlateGrays0 kJ/mol1.57221278 °C2470 °C1560 K2743 K1.848 g/cm3Beryllium is in group 2 of the periodic table, so it is an alkaline earthmetal. It is grayish (slightly gray) in color. It has an atomic number of 4 and is symbolized by the letters Be. It is toxic and should not be handled by anyone without proper training.2, 2
5BBoron10.811(7)[He] 2s2 2p11808Davy and Gay-Lussacmetalloidsolid1, 2, 3covalent network0.870.850.82N/A0.25800.6, 2427.1, 3659.7, 25025.8, 32826.7 kJ/mol6B, 7B, 8B, 9B, 10B, 11B, 12B, 13B, 14B, 15B, 16B, 17B, 18B, 19BN/ABlackp26.7 kJ/mol2.041322300 °C4000 °C2348 K4273 K2.46 g/cm3Boron is a chemical element. It has the chemical symbol B. It has the atomic number 5. It is a metalloid (it has properties of a metal and a non-metal). Much boron is found in chemical compounds in its ore borax. Boron is never found free in nature. Two types of boron are found (allotropes). Amorphous boron is a brown powder and metallic (crystalline) boron is black and hard and a weak conductor at room temperature. Pure boron is used as a dopant (a substance added to semiconductors to change how it behaves with electricity) in the semiconductor industry. Chemical compounds of boron are important as to make strong materials not weigh very much, as nontoxic insecticides and preservatives, and for chemical synthesis. Plants need boron in them to live. Very small amounts of boron are needed in animal's bodies so that they are very healthy. How it keeps animals healthy is not known in a lot of detail. Boron was discovered by Sir Humphry Davy, an English chemist, in 1808. Boron melts at 2075 °C (3767 °F), and boils at 4000 °C (7232 °F).2, 3
6CCarbon12.0107(8)[He] 2s2 2p2prehistoricunknownnonmetalsolid-4, -3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4covalent network0.670.70.771.70.291086.5, 2352.6, 4620.5, 6222.7, 37831, 47277 kJ/mol8C, 9C, 10C, 11C, 12C, 13C, 14C, 15C, 16C, 17C, 18C, 19C, 20C, 21C, 22CN/ABlackp153.9 kJ/mol2.551423550 °C4027 °C3823 K4300 K2.26 g/cm3Carbon is a very important chemical element, with a chemical symbol of C. All known life on Earth needs it. Carbon has atomic mass 12 and atomic number 6. It is a nonmetal, meaning that it is not a metal.2, 4
7NNitrogen14.0067(2)[He] 2s2 2p31772Rutherfordnonmetalgas-3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5diatomic0.560.650.751.550.31402.3, 2856, 4578.1, 7475, 9444.9, 53266.6, 64360 kJ/mol10N, 11N, 12N, 13N, 14N, 15N, 16N, 17N, 18N, 19N, 20N, 21N, 22N, 23N, 24N, 25NN/AColorlessp7 kJ/mol3.04152-209,9 °C -195.79 °C63.05 K77.36 K1.251 g/lNitrogen is a nonmetal chemical element. The atmosphere contains more than 78 percent of nitrogen. It has the chemical symbolN and atomic number 7. Its stable inside typically contains 14 nucleons (7 protons and 7 neutrons). It has 5 electrons in its outer shell.2, 5
8OOxygen15.9994(3)[He] 2s2 2p41774Priestley and Scheelenonmetalgas-2, -1, 1, 2diatomic0.480.60.731.521.211313.9, 3388.3, 5300.5, 7469.2, 10989.5, 13326.5, 71330, 84078 kJ/mol12O, 13O, 14O, 15O, 16O, 17O, 18O, 19O, 20O, 21O, 22O, 23O, 24O, 25O, 26O, 27O, 28ON/AColorlessp141 kJ/mol3.44162-218,4 °C -182.9 °C54.8 K90.2 K1.429 g/lOxygen (O) is a chemical element. In nature, oxygen is a gas with no color or smell. Oxygen is a very important element because it is a part of the air people breathe and the water people drink. Because of this, oxygen supports life. Many living things (including humans) need oxygen to live and breathe, though it is poisonous to some forms of life. In liquid state of matter, oxygen is light blue.2, 6
9FFluorine18.9984032(5)[He] 2s2 2p51886Moissanhalogengas-1atomic0.420.50.711.471.191681, 3374.2, 6050.4, 8407.7, 11022.7, 15164.1, 17868, 92038.1, 106434.3 kJ/mol14F, 15F, 16F, 17F, 18F, 19F, 20F, 21F, 22F, 23F, 24F, 25F, 26F, 27F, 28F, 29F, 30F, 31FN/AColorlessp328 kJ/mol3.98172-219,6 °C -188.12 °C53.5 K85.03 K1.696 g/lFluorine (symbol F) is a chemical element that is very poisonous. Its atomic number (which is the number of protons in it) is 9, and its atomic mass is 19. It is part of the Group 7 (halogens) on the periodic table of elements.2, 7
10NeNeon20.1797(6)[He] 2s2 2p61898Ramsay and Traversnoble gasgasatomic0.380.380.691.54N/A2080.7, 3952.3, 6122, 9371, 12177, 15238, 19999, 23069.5, 115379.5, 131432 kJ/mol16Ne, 17Ne, 18Ne, 19Ne, 20Ne, 21Ne, 22Ne, 23Ne, 24Ne, 25Ne, 26Ne, 27Ne, 28Ne, 29Ne, 30Ne, 31Ne, 32Ne, 33Ne, 34NeN/AColorlessp0 kJ/molN/A182-248,7 °C -246.08 °C24.56 K27.07 K0.9 g/lNeon is a noble gas. It is chemical element 10 on the periodic table. Its symbol is Ne. The word "neon" comes from the Greek word meaning "new". It was discovered by William Ramsay and Morris W. Travers in 1898. Neon does not react with other elements, so it is found by itself. There is not much neon in the air, and it is clear, so we do not see it. Neon gas is used in gas discharge lamps. When electricity goes through the neon, it lights up red. Due to this quality, it is used in signs. Similar signs use other gases to make other colors, but they are also often called "neon signs". Neon is also a term referring to a type of color that is very bright, such as lime green. No true chemical compounds including the neutral compounds of neon are known. Where there is the helium compound HHeF, which might be stable, the analogous compound with Neon is not.2, 8
11NaSodium22.98976928(2)[Ne] 3s11807Davyalkali metalsolid-1, 1metallic1.91.81.542.271.16495.8, 4562, 6910.3, 9543, 13354, 16613, 20117, 25496, 28932, 141362 kJ/mol18Na, 19Na, 20Na, 21Na, 22Na, 23Na, 24Na, 25Na, 26Na, 27Na, 28Na, 29Na, 30Na, 31Na, 32Na, 33Na, 34Na, 35Na, 36Na, 37NaN/ASilvers52.8 kJ/mol0.931397,8 °C 883 °C370.87 K1156 K0.968 g/cm3Sodium (symbol Na, from the Latin name natrium) is the chemical element number 11 in the periodic table of elements. It follows that its nucleus includes 11 protons, and 11 electrons orbit around it (according to the simplified model known as "Niels Bohr atom"). Even if a relatively large number of isotopes can be artificially produced, all decay in a short time. As a consequence all sodium found in nature (mainly in sea water) has the composition 11Na23, meaning that the nucleus includes 12 neutrons. The atomic mass of sodium is 22.9898; if it is rounded, it would be 23.2, 8, 1
12MgMagnesium24.3050(6)[Ne] 3s21755Blackalkaline earth metalsolid1, 2metallic1.451.51.31.730.86737.7, 1450.7, 7732.7, 10542.5, 13630, 18020, 21711, 25661, 31653, 35458 kJ/mol19Mg, 20Mg, 21Mg, 22Mg, 23Mg, 24Mg, 25Mg, 26Mg, 27Mg, 28Mg, 29Mg, 30Mg, 31Mg, 32Mg, 33Mg, 34Mg, 35Mg, 36Mg, 37Mg, 38Mg, 39Mg, 40MgN/ASilvers0 kJ/mol1.3123648,8 °C 1090 °C923 K1363 K1.738 g/cm3Magnesium ( /mæ??ni?zi?m/ mag-NEE-zee-?m) is a chemical element with the symbol Mg, atomic number 12 and common oxidation state +2. It is an alkaline earth metal and the eighth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, where it constitutes about 2% by mass, and ninth in the known universe as a whole.[2] This preponderance of magnesium is related to the fact that it is easily built up in supernova stars from a sequential addition of three helium nuclei to carbon (which in turn is made from three helium nuclei). Magnesium ion's high solubility in water helps ensure that it is the third most abundant element dissolved in seawater.2, 8, 2
13AlAluminum26.9815386(8)[Ne] 3s2 3p11825Oerstedmetalsolid1, 3metallic1.181.251.18N/A0.53577.5, 1816.7, 2744.8, 11577, 14842, 18379, 23326, 27465, 31853, 38473 kJ/mol21Al, 22Al, 23Al, 24Al, 25Al, 26Al, 27Al, 28Al, 29Al, 30Al, 31Al, 32Al, 33Al, 34Al, 35Al, 36Al, 37Al, 38Al, 39Al, 40Al, 41Al, 42AlN/ASilverp42.5 kJ/mol1.61133660,5 °C 2519 °C933.47 K2792 K2.7 g/cm3Aluminium (American spelling: aluminum) is a chemical element. The symbol for aluminium is Al, and its atomic number is 13. Aluminium is the most abundant metal.2, 8, 3
14SiSilicon28.0855(3)[Ne] 3s2 3p21824Berzeliusmetalloidsolid-4, -3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4metallic1., 1577.1, 3231.6, 4355.5, 16091, 19805, 23780, 29287, 33878, 38726 kJ/mol22Si, 23Si, 24Si, 25Si, 26Si, 27Si, 28Si, 29Si, 30Si, 31Si, 32Si, 33Si, 34Si, 35Si, 36Si, 37Si, 38Si, 39Si, 40Si, 41Si, 42Si, 43Si, 44SiN/AGrayp133.6 kJ/mol1.91431410 °C2.9×103 °C1687 K3173 K2.33 g/cm3Silicon is element 14 on the periodic table. Its symbol is Si. Silicon looks like a metal, but does not do everything a metal does, like conduct electricity very easily. It is a metalloid. Silicon is used as a great deal in today's computers and virtually every electronic device. Germanium can also be used in computers, but silicon is easier to find. There is a lot of silicon on the Earth. At the beach, there is silicon in the form of sand. Sand is a compound of silicon known as silicon dioxide or silica. Glass is made by heating sand (or silicon dioxide) hot enough.The glass can have different colours by adding coloured compounds. Silicon also makes up a lot of different rocks and minerals, and they are known as silicates.2, 8, 4
15PPhosphorus30.973762(2)[Ne] 3s2 3p31669Brandtnonmetalsolid-3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5covalent network0.9811.061.80.311011.8, 1907, 2914.1, 4963.6, 6273.9, 21267, 25431, 29872, 35905, 40950 kJ/mol24P, 25P, 26P, 27P, 28P, 29P, 30P, 31P, 32P, 33P, 34P, 35P, 36P, 37P, 38P, 39P, 40P, 41P, 42P, 43P, 44P, 45P, 46PN/AColorlessp72 kJ/mol2.1915344 (P4) °C280.5 °C317.3 K553.6 K1.823 g/cm3Phosphorus has the chemical symbol P, and its atomic number is 15. Its mass number is 30.97. It is not found in nature as an element but as compounds, such as phosphates. It can be a red or a white waxy solid.2, 8, 5
16SSulfur32.065(5)[Ne] 3s2 3p4prehistoricunknownnonmetalsolid-2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6covalent network0.8811.021.80.43999.6, 2252, 3357, 4556, 7004.3, 8495.8, 27107, 31719, 36621, 43177 kJ/mol26S, 27S, 28S, 29S, 30S, 31S, 32S, 33S, 34S, 35S, 36S, 37S, 38S, 39S, 40S, 41S, 42S, 43S, 44S, 45S, 46S, 47S, 48S, 49SN/AYellowp200 kJ/mol2.58163113 °C444.72 °C388.36 K717.87 K1.96 g/cm3Sulfur (or sulphur) is a chemical element. The symbol for sulfur is S, and its atomic number is 16. The superhero Sulfire, created by a young Iowan student, is based off of the element sulfur, and is able to become partially fire.2, 8, 6
17ClChlorine35.453(2)[Ne] 3s2 3p51774Scheelehalogengas-1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7covalent network0.7910.991.751.671251.2, 2298, 3822, 5158.6, 6542, 9362, 11018, 33604, 3.86×104, 43961 kJ/mol28Cl, 29Cl, 30Cl, 31Cl, 32Cl, 33Cl, 34Cl, 35Cl, 36Cl, 37Cl, 38Cl, 39Cl, 40Cl, 41Cl, 42Cl, 43Cl, 44Cl, 45Cl, 46Cl, 47Cl, 48Cl, 49Cl, 50Cl, 51ClN/AYellowp349 kJ/mol3.16173-34,6 °C -34.04 °C171.6 K239.11 K3.214 g/lChlorine (chemical symbol Cl) is a chemical element. Its atomic number (which is the number of protons in it) is 17, and its atomic mass is 35.45. It is part of the 7th column (halogens) on the periodic table of elements.2, 8, 7
18ArArgon39.948(1)[Ne] 3s2 3p61894Ramsay and Rayleighnoble gasgasatomic0.710.710.971.88N/A1520.6, 2665.8, 3931, 5771, 7238, 8781, 11995, 13842, 40760, 46186 kJ/mol30Ar, 31Ar, 32Ar, 33Ar, 34Ar, 35Ar, 36Ar, 37Ar, 38Ar, 39Ar, 40Ar, 41Ar, 42Ar, 43Ar, 44Ar, 45Ar, 46Ar, 47Ar, 48Ar, 49Ar, 50Ar, 51Ar, 52Ar, 53ArN/AColorlessp0 kJ/molN/A183-189,4 °C -185.8 °C83.8 K87.3 K1.784 g/lArgon is a chemical element. The symbol for argon is Ar, and its atomic number (or proton number) is 18. It is a noble gas and no electrons or protons can be lost or gained from this atom.2, 8, 8
19KPotassium39.0983(1)[Ar] 4s11807Davyalkali metalsolid1metallic2.432.21.962.751.52418.8, 3052, 4420, 5877, 7975, 9590, 11343, 14944, 16963.7, 48610 kJ/mol32K, 33K, 34K, 35K, 36K, 37K, 38K, 39K, 40K, 41K, 42K, 43K, 44K, 45K, 46K, 47K, 48K, 49K, 50K, 51K, 52K, 53K, 54K, 55KN/ASilvers48.4 kJ/mol0.821463,7 °C 759 °C336.53 K1032 K0.856 g/cm3Potassium is a chemical element in the periodic table. It has the symbol K. This symbol is taken from the Latin word kalium. Potassium's atomic number is 19. It has 19 protons and electrons. Potassium is not found as an element in nature, because it is so reactive. Potassium has two stable isotopes, with 20 or 22 neutrons. Its atomic mass is 39.098. The unstable isotope with 21 neutrons is one of the most common radioactive materials.2, 8, 8, 1
20CaCalcium40.078(4)[Ar] 4s21808Davyalkaline earth metalsolid2metallic1.941.81.74N/A1.14589.8, 1145.4, 4912.4, 6491, 8153, 10496, 12270, 14206, 18191, 20385, 57110 kJ/mol34Ca, 35Ca, 36Ca, 37Ca, 38Ca, 39Ca, 40Ca, 41Ca, 42Ca, 43Ca, 44Ca, 45Ca, 46Ca, 47Ca, 48Ca, 49Ca, 50Ca, 51Ca, 52Ca, 53Ca, 54Ca, 55Ca, 56Ca, 57CaN/ASilvers2.37 kJ/mol124839 °C1484 °C1115 K1757 K1.55 g/cm3Calcium is a chemical element. Its symbol on the periodic table (a list of all the elements) is Ca. Its atomic number is 20. (The atomic number says where Calcium sits in the periodic table.) It has 20 protons and 20 electrons (if is an atom, see ion). The most common isotopes are Ca-40 and Ca-44. Its mass number is about 40.08. Calcium is very important in the human body, for making bones and for other purposes.2, 8, 8, 2
21ScScandium44.955912(6)[Ar] 3d1 4s21879Nilsontransition metalsolid1, 2, 3metallic1.841.61.44N/A0.89633.1, 1235, 2388.6, 7090.6, 8843, 10679, 13310, 15250, 17370, 21726, 24102, 66320, 73010, 80160, 89490, 9.74×104, 1.056×105, 1.17×105, 124270, 547530, 582163 kJ/mol36Sc, 37Sc, 38Sc, 39Sc, 40Sc, 41Sc, 42Sc, 43Sc, 44Sc, 45Sc, 46Sc, 47Sc, 48Sc, 49Sc, 50Sc, 51Sc, 52Sc, 53Sc, 54Sc, 55Sc, 56Sc, 57Sc, 58Sc, 59Sc, 60ScN/ASilverd18.1 kJ/mol1.36341539 °C2830 °C1814 K3103 K2.985 g/cm3Scandium is chemical element number 21 on the periodic table. Its symbol is Sc.Scandium is a metal in a group known as the transition metals. It is also a rare earth metal. What this means is that there is not very much scandium found in the earth. Because of this, the pure metal can be expensive. The pure metal is very reactive, and will react with other elements like oxygen. The metal turns from shiny to gray. Scandium is not very dangerous because there is not much of it on Earth, so there is not enough of it to harm us. It does not have many uses. Its main use is perhaps as a component in Mercury-vapor lamps. Such lamps are used to light Stadiums.2, 8, 9, 2
22TiTitanium47.867(1)[Ar] 3d2 4s21791Gregor and Klaprothtransition metalsolid-1, 2, 3, 4metallic1.761.41.36N/A0.75658.8, 1309.8, 2652.5, 4174.6, 9581, 11533, 13590, 16440, 18530, 20833, 25575, 28125, 76015, 83280, 90880, 1.007×105, 1.091×105, 1.178×105, 1.299×105, 137530, 602930 kJ/mol38Ti, 39Ti, 40Ti, 41Ti, 42Ti, 43Ti, 44Ti, 45Ti, 46Ti, 47Ti, 48Ti, 49Ti, 50Ti, 51Ti, 52Ti, 53Ti, 54Ti, 55Ti, 56Ti, 57Ti, 58Ti, 59Ti, 60Ti, 61Ti, 62Ti, 63TiN/ASilverd7.6 kJ/mol1.54441660 °C3287 °C1941 K3560 K4.507 g/cm3Titanium is a very strong metal. It is chemical element number 22 on the periodic table. Its symbol is Ti. Titanium alloys are used in aerospace engineering to make very strong and light parts of airplanes. It does not corrode, not even in sea water and chlorine. However, it can burn at high temperatures, and titanium dust is extremely flammable. It has 22 electrons, 22 protons and 26 neutrons. Titanium was discovered in 1791 by William Gregor.Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) is a white pigment (color) that is often used to make things less transparent. It is sometimes used in food.2, 8, 10, 2
23VVanadium50.9415(1)[Ar] 3d3 4s21801del Riotransition metalsolid-1, 2, 3, 4metallic1.711.351.25N/A0.68650.9, 1414, 2830, 4507, 6298.7, 12363, 14530, 16730, 19860, 22240, 24670, 29730, 32446, 86450, 94170, 1.023×105, 1.127×105, 1.216×105, 1.307×105, 1.434×105, 151440 kJ/mol40V, 41V, 42V, 43V, 44V, 45V, 46V, 47V, 48V, 49V, 50V, 51V, 52V, 53V, 54V, 55V, 56V, 57V, 58V, 59V, 60V, 61V, 62V, 63V, 64V, 65VN/ASilverd50.6 kJ/mol1.63541890 °C3407 °C2183 K3680 K6.11 g/cm3Vanadium is chemical element 23 on the periodic table. Its symbol is V. Vanadium is a metal and is part of the group known as the transition metals. It is mostly used in steel where it helps strengthen the steel metal. Vanadium is often found in aquatic forms of life. The human body may need a little bit of vanadium, but scientists are not really sure. Vanadium can react with a variety of other elements, and the chemical compounds it forms often have beautiful colors.2, 8, 11, 2
24CrChromium51.9961(6)[Ar] 3d5 4s11797Vauquelintransition metalsolid-2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6metallic1.661.41.27N/A0.76652.9, 1590.6, 2987, 4743, 6702, 8744.9, 15455, 17820, 20190, 23580, 26130, 28750, 34230, 37066, 97510, 1.058×105, 1.143×105, 1.253×105, 1.347×105, 1.443×105, 1.577×105kJ/mol42Cr, 43Cr, 44Cr, 45Cr, 46Cr, 47Cr, 48Cr, 49Cr, 50Cr, 51Cr, 52Cr, 53Cr, 54Cr, 55Cr, 56Cr, 57Cr, 58Cr, 59Cr, 60Cr, 61Cr, 62Cr, 63Cr, 64Cr, 65Cr, 66Cr, 67CrN/ASilverd64.3 kJ/mol1.66641857 °C2671 °C2180 K2944 K7.14 g/cm3Chromium is a chemical element. Its symbol on the periodic table (a list of all the elements) is Cr. It always has 24 protons, so its atomic number is 24. Its mass number (number of protons and neutrons) is about 54. Most of the times it has 28 neutrons, but different isotopes have more or fewer neutrons. As a metal, it has 24 electrons. Its ions have fewer electrons.2, 8, 13, 1
25MnManganese54.938045(5)[Ar] 3d5 4s21774Gahntransition metalsolid-3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7metallic1.611.41.39N/A0.81717.3, 1509, 3248, 4940, 6990, 9220, 1.15×104, 18770, 2.14×104, 23960, 27590, 30330, 33150, 38880, 41987, 109480, 1.181×105, 1.271×105, 1.386×105, 1.485×105, 1.586×105 kJ/mol44Mn, 45Mn, 46Mn, 47Mn, 48Mn, 49Mn, 50Mn, 51Mn, 52Mn, 53Mn, 54Mn, 55Mn, 56Mn, 57Mn, 58Mn, 59Mn, 60Mn, 61Mn, 62Mn, 63Mn, 64Mn, 65Mn, 66Mn, 67Mn, 68Mn, 69MnN/ASilverd0 kJ/mol1.55741244 °C2061 °C1519 K2334 K7.47 g/cm3Manganese is chemical element 25 on the periodic table. Its symbol is Mn. (Some people get it confused with magnesium, the symbol is Mg). It has 25 protons. Its mass number is 54.94.2, 8, 13, 2
26FeIron55.845(2)[Ar] 3d6 4s2prehistoricunknowntransition metalsolid-2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6metallic1.561.41.25N/A0.69762.5, 1561.9, 2957, 5290, 7240, 9560, 12060, 14580, 22540, 25290, 2.8×104, 31920, 34830, 37840, 4.41×104, 47206, 1.222×105, 1.31×105, 1.405×105, 1.526×105, 1.63×105 kJ/mol45Fe, 46Fe, 47Fe, 48Fe, 49Fe, 50Fe, 51Fe, 52Fe, 53Fe, 54Fe, 55Fe, 56Fe, 57Fe, 58Fe, 59Fe, 60Fe, 61Fe, 62Fe, 63Fe, 64Fe, 65Fe, 66Fe, 67Fe, 68Fe, 69Fe, 70Fe, 71Fe, 72FeN/AGrayd15.7 kJ/mol1.83841535 °C2861 °C1811 K3134 K7.874 g/cm3Iron (chemical symbol Fe) is a chemical element and a metal. It is the second most common metal on Earth, and the most widely-used metal. It makes up much of the Earth's core, and is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust. Iron is element 26, a transition metal in Group 8. Its atomic number is 26 and its mass number is 55.85. Natural iron occurs with four stable isotopes. The metal is used a lot because it is strong and cheap. Iron is the main ingredient used to make steel. Raw iron is magnetic (attracted to magnets), and its compound magnetite is permanently magnetic.2, 8, 14, 2
27CoCobalt58.933195(5)[Ar] 3d7 4s21735Brandttransition metalsolid-1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5metallic1.521.351.26N/A0.54760.4, 1648, 3232, 4950, 7670, 9840, 12440, 15230, 17959, 26570, 2.94×104, 3.24×104, 3.66×104, 3.97×104, 4.28×104, 49396, 52737, 134810, 145170, 1.547×105, 1.674×105 kJ/mol47Co, 48Co, 49Co, 50Co, 51Co, 52Co, 53Co, 54Co, 55Co, 56Co, 57Co, 58Co, 59Co, 60Co, 61Co, 62Co, 63Co, 64Co, 65Co, 66Co, 67Co, 68Co, 69Co, 70Co, 71Co, 72Co, 73Co, 74Co, 75CoN/AGrayd63.7 kJ/mol1.88941495 °C2927 °C1768 K3200 K8.9 g/cm3Cobalt (chemical symbol Co) is a chemical element. It has an atomic number of 27 and an atomic mass of about 59. It is a metal.2, 8, 15, 2
28NiNickel58.6934(4)[Ar] 3d8 4s21751Cronstedttransition metalsolid-1, 1, 2, 3, 4metallic1.491.351.211.630.7737.1, 1753, 3395, 5.3×103, 7339, 1.04×104, 1.28×104, 1.56×104, 1.86×104, 21670, 30970, 3.4×104, 3.71×104, 4.15×104, 4.48×104, 4.81×104, 55101, 58570, 1.487×105, 1.59×105, 1.694×105 kJ/mol48Ni, 49Ni, 50Ni, 51Ni, 52Ni, 53Ni, 54Ni, 55Ni, 56Ni, 57Ni, 58Ni, 59Ni, 60Ni, 61Ni, 62Ni, 63Ni, 64Ni, 65Ni, 66Ni, 67Ni, 68Ni, 69Ni, 70Ni, 71Ni, 72Ni, 73Ni, 74Ni, 75Ni, 76Ni, 77Ni, 78NiN/AGrayd112 kJ/mol1.911041453 °C2913 °C1728 K3186 K8.908 g/cm3Nickel (chemical symbol Ni) is a chemical element. It has an atomic number of 28 and an atomic mass of about 58.69amu. It has 28 protons. It is a transition metal.2, 8, 16, 2
29CuCopper63.546(3)[Ar] 3d10 4s1prehistoricunknowntransition metalsolid1, 2, 3, 4metallic1.451.351.381.40.71745.5, 1957.9, 3555, 5536, 7.7×103, 9.9×103, 1.34×104, 1.6×104, 1.92×104, 2.24×104, 2.56×104, 3.56×104, 3.87×104, 4.2×104, 4.67×104, 5.02×104, 5.37×104, 6.11×104, 64702, 1.637×105, 1.741×105 kJ/mol52Cu, 53Cu, 54Cu, 55Cu, 56Cu, 57Cu, 58Cu, 59Cu, 60Cu, 61Cu, 62Cu, 63Cu, 64Cu, 65Cu, 66Cu, 67Cu, 68Cu, 69Cu, 70Cu, 71Cu, 72Cu, 73Cu, 74Cu, 75Cu, 76Cu, 77Cu, 78Cu, 79Cu, 80CuN/ACopperd118.4 kJ/mol1.91141083,5 °C 2927 °C1357.77 K3200 K8.92 g/cm3Copper is a chemical element. It is the 29th element in the periodic table and has 29 protons. Its mass number is 63.55. It is a transition metal in the middle of the periodic table. The symbol for copper is "Cu", which comes from the Latin word cuprum, which, in turn, came from the Latin word for the island of Cyprus, where copper was found.2, 8, 18, 1
30ZnZinc65.38(2)[Ar] 3d10 4s2prehistoricunknowntransition metalsolid2metallic1.421.351.311.390.74906.4, 1733.3, 3833, 5731, 7970, 1.04×104, 1.29×104, 1.68×104, 1.96×104, 2.3×104, 2.64×104, 29990, 40490, 4.38×104, 4.73×104, 5.23×104, 5.59×104, 5.97×104, 6.73×104, 7.12×104, 1.791×105 kJ/mol54Zn, 55Zn, 56Zn, 57Zn, 58Zn, 59Zn, 60Zn, 61Zn, 62Zn, 63Zn, 64Zn, 65Zn, 66Zn, 67Zn, 68Zn, 69Zn, 70Zn, 71Zn, 72Zn, 73Zn, 74Zn, 75Zn, 76Zn, 77Zn, 78Zn, 79Zn, 80Zn, 81Zn, 82Zn, 83ZnN/ASlateGrayd0 kJ/mol1.65124419,6 °C 907 °C692.68 K1180 K7.14 g/cm3Zinc, sometimes called spelter, is a chemical element. It is a transition metal, a group of metals. It is sometimes considered a post-transition metal. Its symbol on the periodic table is "Zn". Zinc is the 30th element on the periodic table, and has an atomic number of 30. Zinc has a mass number of 65.38. It contains 30 protons and 30 electrons. In total, 29 isotopes of zinc are known, and five of these occur in nature. Some isotopes are radioactive. Their half-lives are between 40 milliseconds for 57Zn and 5x10^18 years for 70Zn.2, 8, 18, 2
31GaGallium69.723(1)[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p11875Lecoq de Boiskaudranmetalsolid1, 2, 3metallic1.361.31.261.870.76578.8, 1979.3, 2963, 6180 kJ/mol56Ga, 57Ga, 58Ga, 59Ga, 60Ga, 61Ga, 62Ga, 63Ga, 64Ga, 65Ga, 66Ga, 67Ga, 68Ga, 69Ga, 70Ga, 71Ga, 72Ga, 73Ga, 74Ga, 75Ga, 76Ga, 77Ga, 78Ga, 79Ga, 80Ga, 81Ga, 82Ga, 83Ga, 84Ga, 85Ga, 86GaN/ASilverp28.9 kJ/mol1.8113429,8 °C 2204 °C302.91 K2477 K5.904 g/cm3Gallium (chemical symbol: Ga) is chemical element 31 on the periodic table. Gallium is a metal, but is has some unusual properties. If it is held in a person's hand, it will melt. Gallium does not conduct electricity well, and is known as a semiconductor. That means gallium can be used in computers to make them work. It is very shiny, so it is used to paint mirrors when melted.2, 8, 18, 3
32GeGermanium72.64(1)[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p21886Winklermetalloidsolid-4, 1, 2, 3, 4metallic1., 1537.5, 3302.1, 4411, 9020 kJ/mol58Ge, 59Ge, 60Ge, 61Ge, 62Ge, 63Ge, 64Ge, 65Ge, 66Ge, 67Ge, 68Ge, 69Ge, 70Ge, 71Ge, 72Ge, 73Ge, 74Ge, 75Ge, 76Ge, 77Ge, 78Ge, 79Ge, 80Ge, 81Ge, 82Ge, 83Ge, 84Ge, 85Ge, 86Ge, 87Ge, 88Ge, 89GeN/AGrayp119 kJ/mol2.01144937,4 °C 2820 °C1211.4 K3093 K5.323 g/cm3Germanium is a chemical element. Its chemical symbol is Ge. Its atomic number is 32. It was discovered by Clemens Winkler. It is a shiny, hard, silver-white metalloid. The chemistry of Germanium is quite like tin. Germanium forms a large number of organometallic compounds. It is an important semiconductor material used in transistors.2, 8, 18, 4
33AsArsenic74.92160(2)[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p3ca. 1250Albertus Magnusmetalloidsolid-3, 2, 3, 5metallic1., 1798, 2735, 4837, 6043, 12310 kJ/mol60As, 61As, 62As, 63As, 64As, 65As, 66As, 67As, 68As, 69As, 70As, 71As, 72As, 73As, 74As, 75As, 76As, 77As, 78As, 79As, 80As, 81As, 82As, 83As, 84As, 85As, 86As, 87As, 88As, 89As, 90As, 91As, 92AsN/ASilverp78 kJ/mol2.18154613 °C614 °C1090 K887 K5.727 g/cm3Arsenic is chemical element 33 on the periodic table. Its symbol is As. Its atomic number is 33 and its atomic mass is 74.02. It is in the pnictogen group on the periodic table.2, 8, 18, 5
34SeSelenium78.96(3)[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p41817Berzeliusnonmetalsolid-2, 2, 4, 6metallic1., 2045, 2973.7, 4144, 6590, 7880, 14990 kJ/mol65Se, 66Se, 67Se, 68Se, 69Se, 70Se, 71Se, 72Se, 73Se, 74Se, 75Se, 76Se, 77Se, 78Se, 79Se, 80Se, 81Se, 82Se, 83Se, 84Se, 85Se, 86Se, 87Se, 88Se, 89Se, 90Se, 91Se, 92Se, 93Se, 94SeN/AGrayp195 kJ/mol2.55164217 °C685 °C494 K958 K4.819 g/cm3Selenium is a chemical element. Its chemical symbol is Se and its atomic number is 34. It has 34 protons and 34 electrons and a mass number of 78.96.2, 8, 18, 6
35BrBromine79.904(1)[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p51826Balardhalogenliquid-1, 1, 3, 4, 5, 7covalent network0.941.151.141.851.821139.9, 2103, 3470, 4560, 5760, 8550, 9940, 1.86×104 kJ/mol67Br, 68Br, 69Br, 70Br, 71Br, 72Br, 73Br, 74Br, 75Br, 76Br, 77Br, 78Br, 79Br, 80Br, 81Br, 82Br, 83Br, 84Br, 85Br, 86Br, 87Br, 88Br, 89Br, 90Br, 91Br, 92Br, 93Br, 94Br, 95Br, 96Br, 97BrN/ARedp324.6 kJ/mol2.96174-7,3 °C 59 °C265.8 K332 K3.12 g/cm3Bromine (Br) is a chemical element. Its atomic number (which is the number of protons in it) is 35, and its atomic weight is 80. It is part of the Group 7 elements (halogens) on the periodic table. It is diatomic, which means that two atoms are stuck together to make a molecule in any bromine sample.2, 8, 18, 7
36KrKrypton83.798(2)[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p61898Ramsay and Traversnoble gasgas2atomic0.880.881.12.02N/A1350.8, 2350.4, 3565, 5070, 6240, 7570, 10710, 12138, 22274, 25880, 2.97×104, 3.38×104, 3.77×104, 4.31×104, 4.75×104, 5.22×104, 5.71×104, 6.18×104, 7.58×104, 8.04×104, 8.53×104kJ/mol69Kr, 70Kr, 71Kr, 72Kr, 73Kr, 74Kr, 75Kr, 76Kr, 77Kr, 78Kr, 79Kr, 80Kr, 81Kr, 82Kr, 83Kr, 84Kr, 85Kr, 86Kr, 87Kr, 88Kr, 89Kr, 90Kr, 91Kr, 92Kr, 93Kr, 94Kr, 95Kr, 96Kr, 97Kr, 98Kr, 99Kr, 100KrN/AColorlessp0 kJ/mol3184-156,6 °C -153.22 °C115.79 K119.93 K3.75 g/lKrypton is a noble gas which means it does not react with many other elements. It is clear and has no taste or smell. The atmosphere is only about one millionth part krypton. The name kypton comes from the Greek word kryptos meaning hidden. It is used in fluorescent lamps, flashbulbs, and as a wavelength standard. The metre used to be defined as 1,650,763.73 wavelengths in a vacuum of krypton gas. Krypton has very few compounds.2, 8, 18, 8
37RbRubidium85.4678(3)[Kr] 5s11861Bunsen and Kirchhoffalkali metalsolid1metallic2.652.352.11N/A1.66403, 2633, 3860, 5080, 6850, 8140, 9570, 13120, 1.45×104, 26740 kJ/mol71Rb, 72Rb, 73Rb, 74Rb, 75Rb, 76Rb, 77Rb, 78Rb, 79Rb, 80Rb, 81Rb, 82Rb, 83Rb, 84Rb, 85Rb, 86Rb, 87Rb, 88Rb, 89Rb, 90Rb, 91Rb, 92Rb, 93Rb, 94Rb, 95Rb, 96Rb, 97Rb, 98Rb, 99Rb, 100Rb, 101Rb, 102RbN/ASilvers46.9 kJ/mol0.821539 °C688 °C312.46 K961 K1.532 g/cm3Rubidium is chemical element 37 on the periodic table. Its symbol is Rb. Its atomic mass is 85.47. It has 37 protons and 37 electrons. It is a soft silver colored metal. It was first discovered in 1861 by Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchoff in Heidelberg, Germany.2, 8, 18, 8, 1
38SrStrontium87.62(1)[Kr] 5s21790Crawfordalkaline earth metalsolid2metallic2.1921.92N/A1.32549.5, 1064.2, 4138, 5.5×103, 6910, 8760, 10230, 1.18×104, 1.56×104, 1.71×104kJ/mol73Sr, 74Sr, 75Sr, 76Sr, 77Sr, 78Sr, 79Sr, 80Sr, 81Sr, 82Sr, 83Sr, 84Sr, 85Sr, 86Sr, 87Sr, 88Sr, 89Sr, 90Sr, 91Sr, 92Sr, 93Sr, 94Sr, 95Sr, 96Sr, 97Sr, 98Sr, 99Sr, 100Sr, 101Sr, 102Sr, 103Sr, 104Sr, 105SrN/ASilvers5.03 kJ/mol0.9525769 °C1382 °C1050 K1655 K2.63 g/cm3Strontium is a chemical element. It has the chemical symbol Sr. It has the atomic number 38. It is a metal. The colour of the metal is silver-white or yellow-silver. The metal is soft. In chemistry it is placed in a group of metal elements named the alkaline earth metals. Strontium has a high chemical reactivity. The metal turns yellow when exposed to air. Strontium has properties similar to those of its two vertical neighbours in the periodic table, calcium and barium. It is found naturally in the minerals celestite and strontianite. The 90Sr isotope is present in radioactive fallout and has a half-life of 28.90 years. Strontium forms salts which make a red flame when they burn. They are used in flares for signalling the position of survivors or shipwrecks and to make the red colour in fireworks.2, 8, 18, 8, 2
39YYttrium88.90585(2)[Kr] 4d1 5s21794Gadolintransition metalsolid1, 2, 3metallic2.121.851.62N/A1.04600, 1180, 1980, 5847, 7430, 8970, 11190, 12450, 14110, 1.84×104kJ/mol76Y, 77Y, 78Y, 79Y, 80Y, 81Y, 82Y, 83Y, 84Y, 85Y, 86Y, 87Y, 88Y, 89Y, 90Y, 91Y, 92Y, 93Y, 94Y, 95Y, 96Y, 97Y, 98Y, 99Y, 100Y, 101Y, 102Y, 103Y, 104Y, 105Y, 106Y, 107Y, 108YN/ASilverd29.6 kJ/mol1.22351523 °C3345 °C1799 K3618 K4.472 g/cm3Yttrium is a chemical elemental metal. It is atomic number 39 on the periodic table. It is silvery-white and tends to form crystals. In chunk form, it is unreactive in air, but powdered yttrium may burn at 400 degrees Celsius. It has several uses, which include lasers, TV's, and metallurgy.2, 8, 18, 9, 2
40ZrZirconium91.224(2)[Kr] 4d2 5s21789Klaprothtransition metalsolid1, 2, 3, 4metallic2.061.551.48N/A0.86640.1, 1270, 2218, 3313, 7752, 9.5×103kJ/mol78Zr, 79Zr, 80Zr, 81Zr, 82Zr, 83Zr, 84Zr, 85Zr, 86Zr, 87Zr, 88Zr, 89Zr, 90Zr, 91Zr, 92Zr, 93Zr, 94Zr, 95Zr, 96Zr, 97Zr, 98Zr, 99Zr, 100Zr, 101Zr, 102Zr, 103Zr, 104Zr, 105Zr, 106Zr, 107Zr, 108Zr, 109Zr, 110ZrN/ASilverd41.1 kJ/mol1.33451852 °C4409 °C2128 K4682 K6.511 g/cm3Zirconium is a chemical elemental metal. It is a greyish-white in color. It is atomic number 40 on the periodic table. Its symbol is Zr. And it is in the family of four (4).2, 8, 18, 10, 2
41NbNiobium92.90638(2)[Kr] 4d4 5s11801Hatchettransition metalsolid-1, 2, 3, 4, 5metallic1.981.451.37N/A0.78652.1, 1380, 2416, 3.7×103, 4877, 9847, 1.21×104 kJ/mol81Nb, 82Nb, 83Nb, 84Nb, 85Nb, 86Nb, 87Nb, 88Nb, 89Nb, 90Nb, 91Nb, 92Nb, 93Nb, 94Nb, 95Nb, 96Nb, 97Nb, 98Nb, 99Nb, 100Nb, 101Nb, 102Nb, 103Nb, 104Nb, 105Nb, 106Nb, 107Nb, 108Nb, 109Nb, 110Nb, 111Nb, 112Nb, 113NbN/AGrayd86.1 kJ/mol1.6552468 °C4744 °C2750 K5017 K8.57 g/cm3Niobium is a chemical element. It is sometimes named columbium. It has the chemical symbol Nb. It has the atomic number 41. It is a rare metal. Niobium is soft and grey. It is ductile. In chemistry it is placed in a group of metal elements named the transition metals. Niobium was discovered in a variety of a mineral named columbite (now called niobite). Niobite is an ore of niobium. Niobium is used in alloys. The most important alloys are used to make special steels and strong welded joints.2, 8, 18, 12, 1
42MoMolybdenum95.96(2)[Kr] 4d5 5s11778Scheeletransition metalsolid-2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6metallic1.91.451.45N/A0.79684.3, 1560, 2618, 4480, 5257, 6640.8, 12125, 13860, 15835, 17980, 20190, 22219, 26930, 29196, 52490, 5.5×104, 6.14×104, 6.77×104, 7.4×104, 8.04×104, 8.7×104kJ/mol83Mo, 84Mo, 85Mo, 86Mo, 87Mo, 88Mo, 89Mo, 90Mo, 91Mo, 92Mo, 93Mo, 94Mo, 95Mo, 96Mo, 97Mo, 98Mo, 99Mo, 100Mo, 101Mo, 102Mo, 103Mo, 104Mo, 105Mo, 106Mo, 107Mo, 108Mo, 109Mo, 110Mo, 111Mo, 112Mo, 113Mo, 114Mo, 115MoN/AGrayd71.9 kJ/mol2.16652617 °C4639 °C2896 K4912 K10.28 g/cm3Molybdenum is a chemical element. It has the chemical symbol Mo. It has the atomic number 42. It has 35 isotopes. The name Molybdenum is from the Greek meaning "leadlike". The color of pure molybdenum is silvery-white. It does not occur naturally, and is made from molybdenite.2, 8, 18, 13, 1
43TcTechnetium[98][Kr] 4d5 5s21937Perrier and Segrètransition metalsolid-3, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7metallic1.831.351.56N/A0.79702, 1470, 2850 kJ/mol85Tc, 86Tc, 87Tc, 88Tc, 89Tc, 90Tc, 91Tc, 92Tc, 93Tc, 94Tc, 95Tc, 96Tc, 97Tc, 98Tc, 99Tc, 100Tc, 101Tc, 102Tc, 103Tc, 104Tc, 105Tc, 106Tc, 107Tc, 108Tc, 109Tc, 110Tc, 111Tc, 112Tc, 113Tc, 114Tc, 115Tc, 116Tc, 117Tc, 118TcBetaDecaySilverd53 kJ/mol1.9752172 °C4265 °C2430 K4538 K11.5 g/cm3Technetium is a chemical element. It has the chemical symbol Tc. It has the atomic number 43. The color of technetium is silvery-grey. It is radioactive. It is a crystaline metal. In chemistry it is placed in a group of metal elements named the transition metals. The chemistry of technetium is somewhere between rhenium and manganese. The isotope 99mTc is used in nuclear medicine. It is used for many diagnostic tests. It has a short half-life. 99Tc is used as a source of beta particles without emitting gamma rays. The ion that has oxygen and technetium bonded together (TcO4-) is named the pertechnetate ion. The pertechnetate ion could be used as to prevent anodic corrosion in steel.2, 8, 18, 13, 2
44RuRuthenium101.07(2)[Kr] 4d7 5s11844Claustransition metalsolid-2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8metallic1.781.31.26N/A0.82710.2, 1620, 2747 kJ/mol87Ru, 88Ru, 89Ru, 90Ru, 91Ru, 92Ru, 93Ru, 94Ru, 95Ru, 96Ru, 97Ru, 98Ru, 99Ru, 100Ru, 101Ru, 102Ru, 103Ru, 104Ru, 105Ru, 106Ru, 107Ru, 108Ru, 109Ru, 110Ru, 111Ru, 112Ru, 113Ru, 114Ru, 115Ru, 116Ru, 117Ru, 118Ru, 119Ru, 120RuN/ASilverd101.3 kJ/mol2.2852310 °C4150 °C2607 K4423 K12.37 g/cm3Ruthenium is a chemical element. It has the chemical symbol Ru. It has the atomic number 44. It is a rare metal. It is silver white. In chemistry it is placed in a group of metal elements named the transition metals. It is also part of the platinum group. Ruthenium is found in platinum ores. Ruthenium is used as a catalyst in some platinum alloys.2, 8, 18, 15, 1
45RhRhodium102.90550(2)[Kr] 4d8 5s11803Wollastontransition metalsolid-1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6metallic1.731.351.35N/A0.81719.7, 1740, 2997 kJ/mol89Rh, 90Rh, 91Rh, 92Rh, 93Rh, 94Rh, 95Rh, 96Rh, 97Rh, 98Rh, 99Rh, 100Rh, 101Rh, 102Rh, 103Rh, 104Rh, 105Rh, 106Rh, 107Rh, 108Rh, 109Rh, 110Rh, 111Rh, 112Rh, 113Rh, 114Rh, 115Rh, 116Rh, 117Rh, 118Rh, 119Rh, 120Rh, 121Rh, 122RhN/ASilverd109.7 kJ/mol2.28951966 °C3695 °C2237 K3968 K12.45 g/cm3Rhodium is a chemical element. It has the chemical symbol Rh. It has the atomic number 45. It is a rare metal. It is silver white and hard. In chemistry it is placed in a group of metal elements named the transition metals. It is also part of the platinum group. Rhodium is found in platinum ores. Rhodium is used as a catalyst in some platinum alloys. It is the most expensive precious metal.2, 8, 18, 16, 1
46PdPalladium106.42(1)[Kr] 4d101803Wollastontransition metalsolid2, 4metallic1.691.41.311.630.78804.4, 1870, 3177 kJ/mol91Pd, 92Pd, 93Pd, 94Pd, 95Pd, 96Pd, 97Pd, 98Pd, 99Pd, 100Pd, 101Pd, 102Pd, 103Pd, 104Pd, 105Pd, 106Pd, 107Pd, 108Pd, 109Pd, 110Pd, 111Pd, 112Pd, 113Pd, 114Pd, 115Pd, 116Pd, 117Pd, 118Pd, 119Pd, 120Pd, 121Pd, 122Pd, 123Pd, 124PdN/ASilverd53.7 kJ/mol2.21051552 °C2963 °C1828.05 K3236 K12.023 g/cm3Palladium is a chemical element. It has the chemical symbol Pd. It has the atomic number 46. It is a metal. It is silver white. In chemistry it is placed in a group of metal elements named the transition metals. It is also part of the platinum group. Palladium has similar chemistry to platinum. It is extracted from (made by taking from) some copper and nickel ores. Its main use is as a catalyst and also in jewellery.2, 8, 18, 18
47AgSilver107.8682(2)[Kr] 4d10 5s1prehistoricunknowntransition metalsolid1, 2, 3metallic1.651.61.531.721.29731, 2070, 3361 kJ/mol93Ag, 94Ag, 95Ag, 96Ag, 97Ag, 98Ag, 99Ag, 100Ag, 101Ag, 102Ag, 103Ag, 104Ag, 105Ag, 106Ag, 107Ag, 108Ag, 109Ag, 110Ag, 111Ag, 112Ag, 113Ag, 114Ag, 115Ag, 116Ag, 117Ag, 118Ag, 119Ag, 120Ag, 121Ag, 122Ag, 123Ag, 124Ag, 125Ag, 126Ag, 127Ag, 128Ag, 129Ag, 130AgN/ASilverd125.6 kJ/mol1.93115961,9 °C 2162 °C1234.93 K2435 K10.49 g/cm3Silver (symbol Ag) is a chemical element. In chemistry, silver is element 47, a transition metal. It has an atomic weight of 107.86 a.m.u. Its symbol is Ag, from the Latin word for silver, argentum.2, 8, 18, 18, 1
48CdCadmium112.411(8)[Kr] 4d10 5s21817Stromeyer and Hermanntransition metalsolid2metallic1.611.551.481.580.92867.8, 1631.4, 3616 kJ/mol95Cd, 96Cd, 97Cd, 98Cd, 99Cd, 100Cd, 101Cd, 102Cd, 103Cd, 104Cd, 105Cd, 106Cd, 107Cd, 108Cd, 109Cd, 110Cd, 111Cd, 112Cd, 113Cd, 114Cd, 115Cd, 116Cd, 117Cd, 118Cd, 119Cd, 120Cd, 121Cd, 122Cd, 123Cd, 124Cd, 125Cd, 126Cd, 127Cd, 128Cd, 129Cd, 130Cd, 131Cd, 132CdN/ASilverd0 kJ/mol1.69125321 °C767 °C594.22 K1040 K8.65 g/cm3Cadmium is a metal. It is element 48 on the periodic table. Its symbol is Cd. Its atomic number is 48 and its atomic mass is 112.4. It is found in Group 12 on the periodic table.2, 8, 18, 18, 2
49InIndium114.818(3)[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p11863Reich and Richtermetalsolid1, 2, 3metallic1.561.551.441.930.94558.3, 1820.7, 2704, 5210 kJ/mol97In, 98In, 99In, 100In, 101In, 102In, 103In, 104In, 105In, 106In, 107In, 108In, 109In, 110In, 111In, 112In, 113In, 114In, 115In, 116In, 117In, 118In, 119In, 120In, 121In, 122In, 123In, 124In, 125In, 126In, 127In, 128In, 129In, 130In, 131In, 132In, 133In, 134In, 135InN/ASilverp28.9 kJ/mol1.78135156,2 °C 2072 °C429.75 K2345 K7.31 g/cm3Indium is a chemical element. It has the chemical symbol In. It has the atomic number 49. It is a rare metal. It is a soft, malleable and poor metal. Indium looks like zinc. Pieces of indium can easily be joined together by pushing one piece into another. The chemistry of indium is quite like aluminium or gallium. Zinc ores are the main source of indium.The main use of indium is in the chemical compound Indium tin oxide in liquid crystal displays. It is also used in very thin layers as a lubricant. In World War II it was used a lot to coat bearings in aircraft.2, 8, 18, 18, 3
50SnTin118.710(7)[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2prehistoricunknownmetalsolid-4, 2, 4metallic1.451.451.412.170.69708.6, 1411.8, 2943, 3930.3, 7456 kJ/mol99Sn, 100Sn, 101Sn, 102Sn, 103Sn, 104Sn, 105Sn, 106Sn, 107Sn, 108Sn, 109Sn, 110Sn, 111Sn, 112Sn, 113Sn, 114Sn, 115Sn, 116Sn, 117Sn, 118Sn, 119Sn, 120Sn, 121Sn, 122Sn, 123Sn, 124Sn, 125Sn, 126Sn, 127Sn, 128Sn, 129Sn, 130Sn, 131Sn, 132Sn, 133Sn, 134Sn, 135Sn, 136Sn, 137SnN/ASilverp107.3 kJ/mol1.96145232 °C2602 °C505.08 K2875 K7.31 g/cm3Tin is a chemical element with symbol Sn (for Latin: stannum) and atomic number 50. It is in Group 14 on the periodic table. It is not radioactive.2, 8, 18, 18, 4
51SbAntimony121.760(1)[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3prehistoricunknownmetalloidsolid-3, 3, 5metallic1.331.451.380.9834, 1594.9, 2440, 4260, 5.4×103, 1.04×104 kJ/mol103Sb, 104Sb, 105Sb, 106Sb, 107Sb, 108Sb, 109Sb, 110Sb, 111Sb, 112Sb, 113Sb, 114Sb, 115Sb, 116Sb, 117Sb, 118Sb, 119Sb, 120Sb, 121Sb, 122Sb, 123Sb, 124Sb, 125Sb, 126Sb, 127Sb, 128Sb, 129Sb, 130Sb, 131Sb, 132Sb, 133Sb, 134Sb, 135Sb, 136Sb, 137Sb, 138Sb, 139SbN/ASilverp103.2 kJ/mol2.05155630,7 °C 1587 °C903.78 K1860 K6.697 g/cm3Antimony is a chemical element. It has the chemical symbol Sb. The symbol Sb is from the Latin name of 'stibium' for the element. It has the atomic number 51. Its atomic mass is 121.8. It is a blue-gray element that is somewhat toxic.2, 8, 18, 18, 5
52TeTellurium127.60(3)[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p41782von Reichensteinmetalloidsolid-2, 2, 4, 5, 6metallic1.231.41.352.061.11869.3, 1790, 2698, 3610, 5668, 6820, 1.32×104 kJ/mol105Te, 106Te, 107Te, 108Te, 109Te, 110Te, 111Te, 112Te, 113Te, 114Te, 115Te, 116Te, 117Te, 118Te, 119Te, 120Te, 121Te, 122Te, 123Te, 124Te, 125Te, 126Te, 127Te, 128Te, 129Te, 130Te, 131Te, 132Te, 133Te, 134Te, 135Te, 136Te, 137Te, 138Te, 139Te, 140Te, 141Te, 142TeN/ASilverp190.2 kJ/mol2.1165449,6 °C 988 °C722.66 K1261 K6.24 g/cm3Tellurium is a chemical element. It has the chemical symbol Te. It has the atomic number 52. It has 52 protons and 52 electrons. Its mass number is 127.6. It has 8 natural isotopes. 4 are stable and 4 are radioactive. One of the radioactive ones lasts longer than any other isotope. It has a half life of 2.2 x 10^24 years .2, 8, 18, 18, 6
53IIodine126.90447(3)[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p51811Courtoishalogensolid-1, 1, 3, 5, 7covalent network1.151.41.331.982.061008.4, 1845.9, 3180 kJ/mol108I, 109I, 110I, 111I, 112I, 113I, 114I, 115I, 116I, 117I, 118I, 119I, 120I, 121I, 122I, 123I, 124I, 125I, 126I, 127I, 128I, 129I, 130I, 131I, 132I, 133I, 134I, 135I, 136I, 137I, 138I, 139I, 140I, 141I, 142I, 143I, 144IN/ASlateGrayp295.2 kJ/mol2.66175113,5 °C 184.3 °C386.85 K457.4 K4.94 g/cm3Iodine is a chemical element. Its atomic number (which is the number of protons in it) is 53, and its atomic mass (the number of protons plus neutrons) is 127. It is part of the Group 7 (halogens) on the periodic table of elements and its electronic configuration is 2,8,18,18,7. It is a nonmetal.2, 8, 18, 18, 7
54XeXenon131.293(6)[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p61898Ramsay and Traversnoble gasgas2, 4, 6, 8atomic1., 2046.4, 3099.4 kJ/mol110Xe, 111Xe, 112Xe, 113Xe, 114Xe, 115Xe, 116Xe, 117Xe, 118Xe, 119Xe, 120Xe, 121Xe, 122Xe, 123Xe, 124Xe, 125Xe, 126Xe, 127Xe, 128Xe, 129Xe, 130Xe, 131Xe, 132Xe, 133Xe, 134Xe, 135Xe, 136Xe, 137Xe, 138Xe, 139Xe, 140Xe, 141Xe, 142Xe, 143Xe, 144Xe, 145Xe, 146Xe, 147XeN/AColorlessp0 kJ/mol2.6185-111,9 °C -108 °C161.3 K165.1 K5.9 g/lXenon is a non-metal chemical element. It has the chemical symbol Xe and atomic number 54. It is one of the few elements that are a gas at Standard temperature and pressure. Sir William Ramsay and M. W. Travers discovered this element in 1898. The element's name came from the Greek word xenos, which means 'stranger'.2, 8, 18, 18, 8
55CsCesium132.9054519(2)[Xe] 6s11860Kirchhoff and Bunsenalkali metalsolid1metallic2.982.62.25N/A1.81375.7, 2234.3, 3.4×103kJ/mol112Cs, 113Cs, 114Cs, 115Cs, 116Cs, 117Cs, 118Cs, 119Cs, 120Cs, 121Cs, 122Cs, 123Cs, 124Cs, 125Cs, 126Cs, 127Cs, 128Cs, 129Cs, 130Cs, 131Cs, 132Cs, 133Cs, 134Cs, 135Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 138Cs, 139Cs, 140Cs, 141Cs, 142Cs, 143Cs, 144Cs, 145Cs, 146Cs, 147Cs, 148Cs, 149Cs, 150Cs, 151CsN/ASilvers45.5 kJ/mol0.791628,4 °C 671 °C301.59 K944 K1.879 g/cm3Caesium (or cesium) is the chemical element with the atomic number 55 on the periodic table. Its symbol is Cs.Caesium is an alkali metal. Its melting point is low (28 °C). It is extremely reactive. Because of its high reactivity, it is a dangerous chemical. It may set itself on fire (ignite) in air. It explodes on contact with water. It reacts more violently than the other alkali metals with water. Because of this, caesium is stored in mineral oil. Caesium is a rare element. Since there is little caesium on the Earth, it is rather expensive. The human body does not need caesium. In large amounts, it is mildly poisonous because it is close to potassium, which the body does need.2, 8, 18, 18, 8, 1
56BaBarium137.327(7)[Xe] 6s21808Davyalkaline earth metalsolid2metallic2.532.151.98N/A1.49502.9, 965.2, 3.6×103kJ/mol114Ba, 115Ba, 116Ba, 117Ba, 118Ba, 119Ba, 120Ba, 121Ba, 122Ba, 123Ba, 124Ba, 125Ba, 126Ba, 127Ba, 128Ba, 129Ba, 130Ba, 131Ba, 132Ba, 133Ba, 134Ba, 135Ba, 136Ba, 137Ba, 138Ba, 139Ba, 140Ba, 141Ba, 142Ba, 143Ba, 144Ba, 145Ba, 146Ba, 147Ba, 148Ba, 149Ba, 150Ba, 151Ba, 152Ba, 153BaN/ASilvers13.95 kJ/mol0.8926725 °C1870 °C1000 K2143 K3.51 g/cm3Barium is chemical element 56 on the periodic table. Its symbol is Ba. It contains 56 protons and 56 electrons. Its mass number is about 137.3. It is a metal.2, 8, 18, 18, 8, 2
57LaLanthanum138.90547(7)[Xe] 5d1 6s21839Mosanderlanthanoidsolid2, 3metallic1.951.951.69N/A1.36538.1, 1067, 1850.3, 4819, 5940 kJ/mol117La, 118La, 119La, 120La, 121La, 122La, 123La, 124La, 125La, 126La, 127La, 128La, 129La, 130La, 131La, 132La, 133La, 134La, 135La, 136La, 137La, 138La, 139La, 140La, 141La, 142La, 143La, 144La, 145La, 146La, 147La, 148La, 149La, 150La, 151La, 152La, 153La, 154La, 155LaN/ASilverf48 kJ/mol1.1N/A6920 °C3464 °C1193 K3737 K6.146 g/cm32, 8, 18, 18, 9, 2
58CeCerium140.116(1)[Xe] 4f1 5d1 6s21803von Hisinger and Berzeliuslanthanoidsolid2, 3, 4metallic1.851.85N/AN/A1.15534.4, 1050, 1949, 3547, 6325, 7490 kJ/mol119Ce, 120Ce, 121Ce, 122Ce, 123Ce, 124Ce, 125Ce, 126Ce, 127Ce, 128Ce, 129Ce, 130Ce, 131Ce, 132Ce, 133Ce, 134Ce, 135Ce, 136Ce, 137Ce, 138Ce, 139Ce, 140Ce, 141Ce, 142Ce, 143Ce, 144Ce, 145Ce, 146Ce, 147Ce, 148Ce, 149Ce, 150Ce, 151Ce, 152Ce, 153Ce, 154Ce, 155Ce, 156Ce, 157CeN/ASilverf50 kJ/mol1.12N/A6798 °C3360 °C1071 K3633 K6.689 g/cm32, 8, 18, 19, 9, 2
59PrPraseodymium140.90765(2)[Xe] 4f3 6s21895von Welsbachlanthanoidsolid2, 3, 4metallic2.471.85N/AN/A1.32527, 1020, 2086, 3761, 5551 kJ/mol121Pr, 122Pr, 123Pr, 124Pr, 125Pr, 126Pr, 127Pr, 128Pr, 129Pr, 130Pr, 131Pr, 132Pr, 133Pr, 134Pr, 135Pr, 136Pr, 137Pr, 138Pr, 139Pr, 140Pr, 141Pr, 142Pr, 143Pr, 144Pr, 145Pr, 146Pr, 147Pr, 148Pr, 149Pr, 150Pr, 151Pr, 152Pr, 153Pr, 154Pr, 155Pr, 156Pr, 157Pr, 158Pr, 159PrN/ASilverf50 kJ/mol1.13N/A6931 °C3290 °C1204 K3563 K6.64 g/cm32, 8, 18, 21, 8, 2
60NdNeodymium144.242(3)[Xe] 4f4 6s21895von Welsbachlanthanoidsolid2, 3metallic2.061.85N/AN/A1.3533.1, 1040, 2130, 3.9×103 kJ/mol124Nd, 125Nd, 126Nd, 127Nd, 128Nd, 129Nd, 130Nd, 131Nd, 132Nd, 133Nd, 134Nd, 135Nd, 136Nd, 137Nd, 138Nd, 139Nd, 140Nd, 141Nd, 142Nd, 143Nd, 144Nd, 145Nd, 146Nd, 147Nd, 148Nd, 149Nd, 150Nd, 151Nd, 152Nd, 153Nd, 154Nd, 155Nd, 156Nd, 157Nd, 158Nd, 159Nd, 160Nd, 161NdN/ASilverf50 kJ/mol1.14N/A61010 °C3.1×103 °C1294 K3373 K7.01 g/cm32, 8, 18, 22, 8, 2
61PmPromethium[145][Xe] 4f5 6s21945Marinsky and Glendeninlanthanoidsolid3metallic2.051.85N/AN/A1.28540, 1050, 2150, 3970 kJ/mol126Pm, 127Pm, 128Pm, 129Pm, 130Pm, 131Pm, 132Pm, 133Pm, 134Pm, 135Pm, 136Pm, 137Pm, 138Pm, 139Pm, 140Pm, 141Pm, 142Pm, 143Pm, 144Pm, 145Pm, 146Pm, 147Pm, 148Pm, 149Pm, 150Pm, 151Pm, 152Pm, 153Pm, 154Pm, 155Pm, 156Pm, 157Pm, 158Pm, 159Pm, 160Pm, 161Pm, 162Pm, 163PmElectronCaptureSilverf50 kJ/molN/AN/A61080 °C3×103 °C1373 K3273 K7.264 g/cm32, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2
62SmSamarium150.36(2)[Xe] 4f6 6s21879Lecoq de Boisbaudranlanthanoidsolid2, 3metallic2.381.85N/AN/A1.1544.5, 1070, 2260, 3990 kJ/mol128Sm, 129Sm, 130Sm, 131Sm, 132Sm, 133Sm, 134Sm, 135Sm, 136Sm, 137Sm, 138Sm, 139Sm, 140Sm, 141Sm, 142Sm, 143Sm, 144Sm, 145Sm, 146Sm, 147Sm, 148Sm, 149Sm, 150Sm, 151Sm, 152Sm, 153Sm, 154Sm, 155Sm, 156Sm, 157Sm, 158Sm, 159Sm, 160Sm, 161Sm, 162Sm, 163Sm, 164Sm, 165SmN/ASilverf50 kJ/mol1.17N/A61072 °C1803 °C1345 K2076 K7.353 g/cm32, 8, 18, 24, 8, 2
63EuEuropium151.964(1)[Xe] 4f7 6s21901Demaçaylanthanoidsolid2, 3metallic2.311.85N/AN/A1.31547.1, 1085, 2404, 4120 kJ/mol130Eu, 131Eu, 132Eu, 133Eu, 134Eu, 135Eu, 136Eu, 137Eu, 138Eu, 139Eu, 140Eu, 141Eu, 142Eu, 143Eu, 144Eu, 145Eu, 146Eu, 147Eu, 148Eu, 149Eu, 150Eu, 151Eu, 152Eu, 153Eu, 154Eu, 155Eu, 156Eu, 157Eu, 158Eu, 159Eu, 160Eu, 161Eu, 162Eu, 163Eu, 164Eu, 165Eu, 166Eu, 167EuN/ASilverf50 kJ/molN/AN/A6822 °C1527 °C1095 K1800 K5.244 g/cm32, 8, 18, 25, 8, 2
64GdGadolinium157.25(3)[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s21880de Marignaclanthanoidsolid1, 2, 3metallic2.331.8N/AN/A1.08593.4, 1170, 1990, 4250 kJ/mol134Gd, 135Gd, 136Gd, 137Gd, 138Gd, 139Gd, 140Gd, 141Gd, 142Gd, 143Gd, 144Gd, 145Gd, 146Gd, 147Gd, 148Gd, 149Gd, 150Gd, 151Gd, 152Gd, 153Gd, 154Gd, 155Gd, 156Gd, 157Gd, 158Gd, 159Gd, 160Gd, 161Gd, 162Gd, 163Gd, 164Gd, 165Gd, 166Gd, 167Gd, 168Gd, 169GdN/ASilverf50 kJ/mol1.2N/A61311 °C3250 °C1586 K3523 K7.901 g/cm32, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
65TbTerbium158.92535(2)[Xe] 4f9 6s21843Mosanderlanthanoidsolid1, 3, 4metallic2.251.75N/AN/A1.18565.8, 1110, 2114, 3839 kJ/mol136Tb, 137Tb, 138Tb, 139Tb, 140Tb, 141Tb, 142Tb, 143Tb, 144Tb, 145Tb, 146Tb, 147Tb, 148Tb, 149Tb, 150Tb, 151Tb, 152Tb, 153Tb, 154Tb, 155Tb, 156Tb, 157Tb, 158Tb, 159Tb, 160Tb, 161Tb, 162Tb, 163Tb, 164Tb, 165Tb, 166Tb, 167Tb, 168Tb, 169Tb, 170Tb, 171TbN/ASilverf50 kJ/molN/AN/A61360 °C3230 °C1629 K3503 K8.219 g/cm32, 8, 18, 27, 8, 2
66DyDysprosium162.500(1)[Xe] 4f10 6s21886Lecoq de Boisbaudranlanthanoidsolid2, 3metallic2.281.75N/AN/A1.05573, 1130, 2.2×103, 3990 kJ/mol138Dy, 139Dy, 140Dy, 141Dy, 142Dy, 143Dy, 144Dy, 145Dy, 146Dy, 147Dy, 148Dy, 149Dy, 150Dy, 151Dy, 152Dy, 153Dy, 154Dy, 155Dy, 156Dy, 157Dy, 158Dy, 159Dy, 160Dy, 161Dy, 162Dy, 163Dy, 164Dy, 165Dy, 166Dy, 167Dy, 168Dy, 169Dy, 170Dy, 171Dy, 172Dy, 173DyN/ASilverf50 kJ/mol1.22N/A61409 °C2567 °C1685 K2840 K8.551 g/cm32, 8, 18, 28, 8, 2
67HoHolmium164.93032(2)[Xe] 4f11 6s21878Soretlanthanoidsolid3metallic2.261.75N/AN/A1.04581, 1140, 2204, 4.1×103 kJ/mol140Ho, 141Ho, 142Ho, 143Ho, 144Ho, 145Ho, 146Ho, 147Ho, 148Ho, 149Ho, 150Ho, 151Ho, 152Ho, 153Ho, 154Ho, 155Ho, 156Ho, 157Ho, 158Ho, 159Ho, 160Ho, 161Ho, 162Ho, 163Ho, 164Ho, 165Ho, 166Ho, 167Ho, 168Ho, 169Ho, 170Ho, 171Ho, 172Ho, 173Ho, 174Ho, 175HoN/ASilverf50 kJ/mol1.23N/A61470 °C2700 °C1747 K2973 K8.795 g/cm32, 8, 18, 29, 8, 2
68ErErbium167.259(3)[Xe] 4f12 6s21842Mosanderlanthanoidsolid3metallic2.261.75N/AN/A1.03589.3, 1150, 2194, 4120 kJ/mol143Er, 144Er, 145Er, 146Er, 147Er, 148Er, 149Er, 150Er, 151Er, 152Er, 153Er, 154Er, 155Er, 156Er, 157Er, 158Er, 159Er, 160Er, 161Er, 162Er, 163Er, 164Er, 165Er, 166Er, 167Er, 168Er, 169Er, 170Er, 171Er, 172Er, 173Er, 174Er, 175Er, 176Er, 177ErN/ASilverf50 kJ/mol1.24N/A61522 °C2868 °C1770 K3141 K9.066 g/cm32, 8, 18, 30, 8, 2
69TmThulium168.93421(2)[Xe] 4f13 6s21879Clevelanthanoidsolid2, 3metallic2.221.75N/AN/A1.02596.7, 1160, 2285, 4120 kJ/mol145Tm, 146Tm, 147Tm, 148Tm, 149Tm, 150Tm, 151Tm, 152Tm, 153Tm, 154Tm, 155Tm, 156Tm, 157Tm, 158Tm, 159Tm, 160Tm, 161Tm, 162Tm, 163Tm, 164Tm, 165Tm, 166Tm, 167Tm, 168Tm, 169Tm, 170Tm, 171Tm, 172Tm, 173Tm, 174Tm, 175Tm, 176Tm, 177Tm, 178Tm, 179TmN/ASilverf50 kJ/mol1.25N/A61545 °C1950 °C1818 K2223 K9.321 g/cm32, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2
70YbYtterbium173.054(5)[Xe] 4f14 6s21878de Marignaclanthanoidsolid2, 3metallic2.221.75N/AN/A1.13603.4, 1174.8, 2417, 4203 kJ/mol148Yb, 149Yb, 150Yb, 151Yb, 152Yb, 153Yb, 154Yb, 155Yb, 156Yb, 157Yb, 158Yb, 159Yb, 160Yb, 161Yb, 162Yb, 163Yb, 164Yb, 165Yb, 166Yb, 167Yb, 168Yb, 169Yb, 170Yb, 171Yb, 172Yb, 173Yb, 174Yb, 175Yb, 176Yb, 177Yb, 178Yb, 179Yb, 180Yb, 181YbN/ASilverf50 kJ/molN/AN/A6824 °C1196 °C1092 K1469 K6.57 g/cm32, 8, 18, 32, 8, 2
71LuLutetium174.9668(1)[Xe] 4f14 5d1 6s21907Urbainlanthanoidsolid3metallic2.171.751.6N/A1523.5, 1340, 2022.3, 4370, 6445 kJ/mol150Lu, 151Lu, 152Lu, 153Lu, 154Lu, 155Lu, 156Lu, 157Lu, 158Lu, 159Lu, 160Lu, 161Lu, 162Lu, 163Lu, 164Lu, 165Lu, 166Lu, 167Lu, 168Lu, 169Lu, 170Lu, 171Lu, 172Lu, 173Lu, 174Lu, 175Lu, 176Lu, 177Lu, 178Lu, 179Lu, 180Lu, 181Lu, 182Lu, 183Lu, 184LuN/ASilverd50 kJ/mol1.27361656 °C3402 °C1936 K3675 K9.841 g/cm32, 8, 18, 32, 9, 2
72HfHafnium178.49(2)[Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s21923Coster and vón Hevesytransition metalsolid2, 3, 4metallic2.081.551.5N/A0.85658.5, 1440, 2250, 3216 kJ/mol153Hf, 154Hf, 155Hf, 156Hf, 157Hf, 158Hf, 159Hf, 160Hf, 161Hf, 162Hf, 163Hf, 164Hf, 165Hf, 166Hf, 167Hf, 168Hf, 169Hf, 170Hf, 171Hf, 172Hf, 173Hf, 174Hf, 175Hf, 176Hf, 177Hf, 178Hf, 179Hf, 180Hf, 181Hf, 182Hf, 183Hf, 184Hf, 185Hf, 186Hf, 187Hf, 188HfN/AGrayd0 kJ/mol1.3462150 °C4603 °C2506 K4876 K13.31 g/cm3Hafnium is a chemical element. It has the chemical symbol Hf. It has the atomic number 72. It is a metal. It is silver gray. In chemistry it is placed in a group of metal elements named the transition metals. The chemistry of hafnium is similar to zirconium. Hafnium is found in zirconium minerals.Hafnium is used in tungsten alloys in filaments and electrodes. It is also used as a neutron absorber in control rods in nuclear power plants.2, 8, 18, 32, 10, 2
73TaTantalum180.94788(2)[Xe] 4f14 5d3 6s21802Ekebergtransition metalsolid-1, 2, 3, 4, 5metallic21.451.38N/A0.78761, 1.5×103 kJ/mol155Ta, 156Ta, 157Ta, 158Ta, 159Ta, 160Ta, 161Ta, 162Ta, 163Ta, 164Ta, 165Ta, 166Ta, 167Ta, 168Ta, 169Ta, 170Ta, 171Ta, 172Ta, 173Ta, 174Ta, 175Ta, 176Ta, 177Ta, 178Ta, 179Ta, 180Ta, 181Ta, 182Ta, 183Ta, 184Ta, 185Ta, 186Ta, 187Ta, 188Ta, 189Ta, 190TaN/AGrayd31 kJ/mol1.5562996 °C5458 °C3290 K5731 K16.65 g/cm3Tantalum is a chemical element. Tantalum was named tantalium. It has the chemical symbol Ta. It has the atomic number 73. It is a rare metal. It is hard and blue-gray. In chemistry it is placed in a group of metal elements named the transition metals. Tantalum does not easily corrode. It is found in the mineral tantalite.2, 8, 18, 32, 11, 2
74WTungsten183.84(1)[Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s21783Gebrüder de Elhuyartransition metalsolid-2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6metallic1.931.351.46N/A0.74770, 1.7×103 kJ/mol158W, 159W, 160W, 161W, 162W, 163W, 164W, 165W, 166W, 167W, 168W, 169W, 170W, 171W, 172W, 173W, 174W, 175W, 176W, 177W, 178W, 179W, 180W, 181W, 182W, 183W, 184W, 185W, 186W, 187W, 188W, 189W, 190W, 191W, 192WN/AGrayd78.6 kJ/mol2.36663407 °C5555 °C3695 K5828 K19.25 g/cm3Tungsten (sometimes named wolfram) is a chemical element. It has the chemical symbol W. It has the atomic number 74. It is a metal. The colour of the metal is steel-gray to white. In chemistry it is placed in a group of metal elements named the transition metals. Tungsten is found in several ores. Two ores which have tungsten in them are wolframite and scheelite. Tungsten has a higher melting point than any other non-alloy that exists. The pure form (only tungsten) is mainly used for electrical uses. Its compounds and alloys are used for many things. Their most well known use is in light bulb filaments. It is also used as the filament and target in most X-ray tubes and also in superalloys. It is also used in glass to metal seals. Tungsten's dense nature has been used for many things. In the military, for example, Tungsten has been used for building howitzer shells.2, 8, 18, 32, 12, 2
75ReRhenium186.207(1)[Xe] 4f14 5d5 6s21925Noddack, Tacke and Bergtransition metalsolid-3, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7metallic1.881.351.59N/A0.77760, 1260, 2510, 3640 kJ/mol160Re, 161Re, 162Re, 163Re, 164Re, 165Re, 166Re, 167Re, 168Re, 169Re, 170Re, 171Re, 172Re, 173Re, 174Re, 175Re, 176Re, 177Re, 178Re, 179Re, 180Re, 181Re, 182Re, 183Re, 184Re, 185Re, 186Re, 187Re, 188Re, 189Re, 190Re, 191Re, 192Re, 193Re, 194ReN/AGrayd14.5 kJ/mol1.9763180 °C5596 °C3459 K5869 K21.02 g/cm3Rhenium is a chemical element. It has the chemical symbol Re. It has the atomic number 75. It is a rare metal. It is silver white. In chemistry it is placed in a group of metal elements named the transition metals. The chemistry of rhenium is similar to manganese. It was the last natural element to be discovered. Rhenium made as a by-product of molybdenum refinement. Rhenium is used in some manganese alloys. Rhenium-molybdenum alloys are superconductors.2, 8, 18, 32, 13, 2
76OsOsmium190.23(3)[Xe] 4f14 5d6 6s21803Tenanttransition metalsolid-2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8metallic1.851.31.28N/A0.77840, 1.6×103 kJ/mol162Os, 163Os, 164Os, 165Os, 166Os, 167Os, 168Os, 169Os, 170Os, 171Os, 172Os, 173Os, 174Os, 175Os, 176Os, 177Os, 178Os, 179Os, 180Os, 181Os, 182Os, 183Os, 184Os, 185Os, 186Os, 187Os, 188Os, 189Os, 190Os, 191Os, 192Os, 193Os, 194Os, 195Os, 196OsN/ASlateGrayd106.1 kJ/mol2.2863045 °C5012 °C3306 K5285 K22.61 g/cm3Osmium is a chemical element. It is element number 76 on the periodic table. Its symbol is Os. There is not much osmium on earth. There is actually such a small amount that osmium is very expensive. Osmium is a metal and it does not react very much, and such a metal is known as a "noble metal". Osmium is the densest (heaviest for the same amount) element on the periodic table. It was discovered in 1804 by Smithson Tennant in London, England. He found it together with Iridium in a bit of Platinum, which he had dissolved in Aqua regia.2, 8, 18, 32, 14, 2
77IrIridium192.217(3)[Xe] 4f14 5d7 6s21803Tenant and anderetransition metalsolid-3, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6metallic1.81.351.37N/A0.77880, 1.6×103 kJ/mol164Ir, 165Ir, 166Ir, 167Ir, 168Ir, 169Ir, 170Ir, 171Ir, 172Ir, 173Ir, 174Ir, 175Ir, 176Ir, 177Ir, 178Ir, 179Ir, 180Ir, 181Ir, 182Ir, 183Ir, 184Ir, 185Ir, 186Ir, 187Ir, 188Ir, 189Ir, 190Ir, 191Ir, 192Ir, 193Ir, 194Ir, 195Ir, 196Ir, 197Ir, 198Ir, 199IrN/ASilverd151 kJ/mol2.2962410 °C4428 °C2739 K4701 K22.65 g/cm3Iridium is the 77th element on the periodic table. Its symbol is Ir. Ir's atomic number(the amount of protons) is 77. Iridium is a metal. It is very hard to find and costs a lot. It is known as a "noble metal". Iridium belongs to a group of metals known as transition metals. It looks like platinum and is found in asteroids and comets. It can be used to find out when an asteroid or comet will hit the Earth. It is a very costly metal that can fold and bend just like aluminum. It is very shiny. It is relatively rare on the Earth's crust. Most Iridium is found in Brazil, Canada, Myanmar, Russia, South Africa, and the United States. Iridium is the most corrosion resistant metal. Iridium melts at 2410 °C and boils at 4130 °C. Iridium is not needed in the body.2, 8, 18, 32, 15, 2
78PtPlatinum195.084(9)[Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s11557Scaligertransition metalsolid2, 4, 5, 6metallic1.771.351.281.750.74870, 1791 kJ/mol166Pt, 167Pt, 168Pt, 169Pt, 170Pt, 171Pt, 172Pt, 173Pt, 174Pt, 175Pt, 176Pt, 177Pt, 178Pt, 179Pt, 180Pt, 181Pt, 182Pt, 183Pt, 184Pt, 185Pt, 186Pt, 187Pt, 188Pt, 189Pt, 190Pt, 191Pt, 192Pt, 193Pt, 194Pt, 195Pt, 196Pt, 197Pt, 198Pt, 199Pt, 200Pt, 201Pt, 202PtN/AGrayd205.3 kJ/mol2.281061772 °C3825 °C2041.4 K4098 K21.09 g/cm3Platinum is a soft, heavy, white metal. It is a precious metal . It usually costs more than gold. In chemistry, platinum is element number 78, and its atoms have an atomic weight of 195 a.m.u.. The symbol for platinum is Pt, from Spanish platina meaning "little silver". Platinum is very malleable and ductile, which means it can be hammered into thin sheets and it can be pulled into wire. Platinum is very stable. Acids do not affect platinum.2, 8, 18, 32, 17, 1
79AuGold196.966569(4)[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1prehistoricunknowntransition metalsolid-1, 1, 2, 3, 5metallic1.741.351.441.661.51890.1, 1980 kJ/mol169Au, 170Au, 171Au, 172Au, 173Au, 174Au, 175Au, 176Au, 177Au, 178Au, 179Au, 180Au, 181Au, 182Au, 183Au, 184Au, 185Au, 186Au, 187Au, 188Au, 189Au, 190Au, 191Au, 192Au, 193Au, 194Au, 195Au, 196Au, 197Au, 198Au, 199Au, 200Au, 201Au, 202Au, 203Au, 204Au, 205AuN/AGoldd222.8 kJ/mol2.541161064,4 °C 2856 °C1337.33 K3129 K19.3 g/cm3Gold is a soft, heavy, shiny metal. It is a chemical element. Its chemical symbol is Au. Its atomic number is 79. It has been used for many thousands of years by people all over the world, for jewelry, decoration, and as money. Gold is important because it is rare, but also easier to use than other rare metals. It is also used to repair and replace teeth and in electronic equipment such as computers. The color of this metal is also called gold. Mining methods for gold are similar to other metals. Gold is so valued that the discovery of a new place to mine has sometimes caused a gold rush.2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1
80HgMercury200.59(2)[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2prehistoricunknowntransition metalliquid1, 2, 4metallic1.711.51.491.550.831007.1, 1810, 3.3×103kJ/mol171Hg, 172Hg, 173Hg, 174Hg, 175Hg, 176Hg, 177Hg, 178Hg, 179Hg, 180Hg, 181Hg, 182Hg, 183Hg, 184Hg, 185Hg, 186Hg, 187Hg, 188Hg, 189Hg, 190Hg, 191Hg, 192Hg, 193Hg, 194Hg, 195Hg, 196Hg, 197Hg, 198Hg, 199Hg, 200Hg, 201Hg, 202Hg, 203Hg, 204Hg, 205Hg, 206Hg, 207Hg, 208Hg, 209Hg, 210HgN/ASilverd0 kJ/mol2126-38,9 °C 356.73 °C234.32 K629.88 K13.534 g/cm3Mercury, also known as quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a chemical element. Its symbol on the periodic table is Hg, and its atomic number is 80. Its atomic mass is 200.59. The symbol Hg stands for its Latinized Greek name hydrargyrum, meaning watery or liquid silver.2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 2
81TlThallium204.3833(2)[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p11861Crookesmetalsolid1, 3metallic1.561.91.481.961.03589.4, 1971, 2878 kJ/mol176Tl, 177Tl, 178Tl, 179Tl, 180Tl, 181Tl, 182Tl, 183Tl, 184Tl, 185Tl, 186Tl, 187Tl, 188Tl, 189Tl, 190Tl, 191Tl, 192Tl, 193Tl, 194Tl, 195Tl, 196Tl, 197Tl, 198Tl, 199Tl, 200Tl, 201Tl, 202Tl, 203Tl, 204Tl, 205Tl, 206Tl, 207Tl, 208Tl, 209Tl, 210Tl, 211Tl, 212TlN/ASilverp19.2 kJ/mol1.62136303,6 °C 1473 °C577 K1746 K11.85 g/cm3Thallium is a chemical element. It has the chemical symbol Tl. It has the atomic number 81. Its standard atomic weight is 204.4. It is found in Group 13 of the periodic table. Thallium is a gray metal that is very toxic.2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 3
82PbLead207.2(1)[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2prehistoricunknownmetalsolid-4, 2, 4metallic1.541.81.472.021.49715.6, 1450.5, 3081.5, 4083, 6640 kJ/mol178Pb, 179Pb, 180Pb, 181Pb, 182Pb, 183Pb, 184Pb, 185Pb, 186Pb, 187Pb, 188Pb, 189Pb, 190Pb, 191Pb, 192Pb, 193Pb, 194Pb, 195Pb, 196Pb, 197Pb, 198Pb, 199Pb, 200Pb, 201Pb, 202Pb, 203Pb, 204Pb, 205Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb, 209Pb, 210Pb, 211Pb, 212Pb, 213Pb, 214Pb, 215PbN/ASlateGrayp35.1 kJ/mol2.33146327,5 °C 1749 °C600.61 K2022 K11.34 g/cm3Lead (pronounce: "lehd") is a chemical element. Its chemical symbol is Pb, which comes from plumbum, the Latin word for lead. Its atomic number is 82, atomic mass is 207.2 and has a melting point of 327.8°C. It is a very poisonous and heavy metal.2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4
83BiBismuth208.98040(1)[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p31540Agricolametalsolid-3, 3, 5metallic1.431.61.46N/A1.17703, 1610, 2466, 4370, 5.4×103, 8520 kJ/mol184Bi, 185Bi, 186Bi, 187Bi, 188Bi, 189Bi, 190Bi, 191Bi, 192Bi, 193Bi, 194Bi, 195Bi, 196Bi, 197Bi, 198Bi, 199Bi, 200Bi, 201Bi, 202Bi, 203Bi, 204Bi, 205Bi, 206Bi, 207Bi, 208Bi, 209Bi, 210Bi, 211Bi, 212Bi, 213Bi, 214Bi, 215Bi, 216Bi, 217Bi, 218BiAlphaEmissionGrayp91.2 kJ/mol2.02156271,4 °C 1564 °C544.4 K1837 K9.78 g/cm3Bismuth is a chemical element. It is element 83 on the periodic table and its symbol is Bi. Its atomic mass is 209. It is only a very little radioactive. The radioactivity is so little that it is seen as nonradioactive normally. Bismuth is only found as one isotope naturally, which is the almost nonradioactive one. Its radioactivity was predicted by scientists and proven by analyzing the metal. It is in Group 15 on the periodic table2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5
84PoPolonium[209][Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p41898Marie and Pierre Curiemetalloidsolid-2, 2, 4, 6metallic1.351.9N/AN/A1.08812.1 kJ/mol188Po, 189Po, 190Po, 191Po, 192Po, 193Po, 194Po, 195Po, 196Po, 197Po, 198Po, 199Po, 200Po, 201Po, 202Po, 203Po, 204Po, 205Po, 206Po, 207Po, 208Po, 209Po, 210Po, 211Po, 212Po, 213Po, 214Po, 215Po, 216Po, 217Po, 218Po, 219Po, 220PoAlphaEmissionSilverp183.3 kJ/mol2166254 °C962 °C527 K1235 K9.196 g/cm3Polonium is a rare radioactive metalloid. It is chemical element 84 on the periodic table and its symbol is Po. It was discovered in 1898 by Marie and Pierre Curie. Polonium is highly unstable, radioactive and toxic. This makes it difficult to handle. It can be dangerous, even in very small amounts. One gram of Po will self-heat to a temperature of about 500 °C (932 °F). It also vaporizes easily. Polonium has 33 isotopes, and all of them are radioactive. It is a very rare element in nature because of its short half-life. It is a breakdown product of uranium, so it is found in uranium ores.2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6
85AtAstatine[210][Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p51940Corson and MacKenziehalogensolid-1, 1, 3, 5covalent network1.271.27N/AN/A0.76920 kJ/mol193At, 194At, 195At, 196At, 197At, 198At, 199At, 200At, 201At, 202At, 203At, 204At, 205At, 206At, 207At, 208At, 209At, 210At, 211At, 212At, 213At, 214At, 215At, 216At, 217At, 218At, 219At, 220At, 221At, 222At, 223AtBetaPlusDecaySilverp270.1 kJ/mol2.2176302 °CN/A575 KN/AN/AAstatine is a chemical element. Its atomic number (which is the number of protons in it) is 85, and its atomic weight (which is approximately the number of protons plus the number of neutrons in it) is 210. It is part of the Group 7 (halogens) on the periodic table of elements. Some of its isotopes may be in nature. But because it is extremely unstable (roughly speaking, the atoms fall apart), only about an ounce exists in the Earth's crust at one point in time. It is radioactive. The longest-living isotope 210At has a half-life of a bit over eight hours.2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7
86RnRadon[222][Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p61900Dornnoble gasgas2atomic1.21.21.45N/AN/A1037 kJ/mol195Rn, 196Rn, 197Rn, 198Rn, 199Rn, 200Rn, 201Rn, 202Rn, 203Rn, 204Rn, 205Rn, 206Rn, 207Rn, 208Rn, 209Rn, 210Rn, 211Rn, 212Rn, 213Rn, 214Rn, 215Rn, 216Rn, 217Rn, 218Rn, 219Rn, 220Rn, 221Rn, 222Rn, 223Rn, 224Rn, 225Rn, 226Rn, 227Rn, 228RnAlphaEmissionColorlessp0 kJ/molN/A186-71 °C-61.7 °C202 K211.3 K9.73 g/lRadon is element 86 on the periodic table. Its symbol is Rn. Radon is a gas and is part of the group known as the noble gases. It does not react with other elements, so it is found pure. Radon is radioactive, meaning that it can give off harmful rays. Some people have high levels of radon in their houses, and this can be very dangerous. A lot of radon can get stuck in the basement of old houses, and so people end up breathing it in. It gets stuck in the lungs and has been known to cause cancer. There are groups that try to make sure there is no dangerous radon in houses.2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8
87FrFrancium[223][Rn] 7s11939Pereyalkali metalsolid1metallicN/AN/AN/AN/A1.94380 kJ/mol199Fr, 200Fr, 201Fr, 202Fr, 203Fr, 204Fr, 205Fr, 206Fr, 207Fr, 208Fr, 209Fr, 210Fr, 211Fr, 212Fr, 213Fr, 214Fr, 215Fr, 216Fr, 217Fr, 218Fr, 219Fr, 220Fr, 221Fr, 222Fr, 223Fr, 224Fr, 225Fr, 226Fr, 227Fr, 228Fr, 229Fr, 230Fr, 231Fr, 232FrBetaDecaySilversN/A0.71727 °CN/AN/AN/AN/A2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1
88RaRadium[226][Rn] 7s21898Marie and Pierre Curiealkaline earth metalsolid2metallicN/A2.15N/AN/A1.62509.3, 979 kJ/mol202Ra, 203Ra, 204Ra, 205Ra, 206Ra, 207Ra, 208Ra, 209Ra, 210Ra, 211Ra, 212Ra, 213Ra, 214Ra, 215Ra, 216Ra, 217Ra, 218Ra, 219Ra, 220Ra, 221Ra, 222Ra, 223Ra, 224Ra, 225Ra, 226Ra, 227Ra, 228Ra, 229Ra, 230Ra, 231Ra, 232Ra, 233Ra, 234RaAlphaEmissionSilversN/A0.927700 °C1737 °C973 K2010 K5 g/cm32, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 2
89AcActinium[227][Rn] 6d1 7s21899Debierneactinoidsolid3metallic1.951.95N/AN/A1.26499, 1170 kJ/mol206Ac, 207Ac, 208Ac, 209Ac, 210Ac, 211Ac, 212Ac, 213Ac, 214Ac, 215Ac, 216Ac, 217Ac, 218Ac, 219Ac, 220Ac, 221Ac, 222Ac, 223Ac, 224Ac, 225Ac, 226Ac, 227Ac, 228Ac, 229Ac, 230Ac, 231Ac, 232Ac, 233Ac, 234Ac, 235Ac, 236AcBetaDecaySilverfN/A1.1N/A71047 °C3200 °C1323 K3473 K10.07 g/cm32, 8, 18, 32, 18, 9, 2
90ThThorium232.03806(2)[Rn] 6d2 7s21829Berzeliusactinoidsolid2, 3, 4metallic1.81.8N/AN/A1.19587, 1110, 1930, 2780 kJ/mol209Th, 210Th, 211Th, 212Th, 213Th, 214Th, 215Th, 216Th, 217Th, 218Th, 219Th, 220Th, 221Th, 222Th, 223Th, 224Th, 225Th, 226Th, 227Th, 228Th, 229Th, 230Th, 231Th, 232Th, 233Th, 234Th, 235Th, 236Th, 237Th, 238ThAlphaEmissionSilverfN/A1.3N/A71750 °C4820 °C2023 K5093 K11.724 g/cm32, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2
91PaProtactinium231.03588(2)[Rn] 5f2 6d1 7s21917Soddy, Cranston and Hahnactinoidsolid3, 4, 5metallic1.81.8N/AN/A1.09568 kJ/mol212Pa, 213Pa, 214Pa, 215Pa, 216Pa, 217Pa, 218Pa, 219Pa, 220Pa, 221Pa, 222Pa, 223Pa, 224Pa, 225Pa, 226Pa, 227Pa, 228Pa, 229Pa, 230Pa, 231Pa, 232Pa, 233Pa, 234Pa, 235Pa, 236Pa, 237Pa, 238Pa, 239Pa, 240PaAlphaEmissionSilverfN/A1.5N/A71554 °C4000 °C1845 K4273 K15.37 g/cm32, 8, 18, 32, 20, 9, 2
92UUranium238.02891(3)[Rn] 5f3 6d1 7s21789Klaprothactinoidsolid3, 4, 5, 6metallic1.751.75N/A1.860.87597.6, 1420 kJ/mol217U, 218U, 219U, 220U, 221U, 222U, 223U, 224U, 225U, 226U, 227U, 228U, 229U, 230U, 231U, 232U, 233U, 234U, 235U, 236U, 237U, 238U, 239U, 240U, 241U, 242UAlphaEmissionSilverfN/A1.38N/A71132,4 °C 3927 °C1408 K4200 K19.05 g/cm32, 8, 18, 32, 21, 9, 2
93NpNeptunium[237][Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s21940McMillan and Abelsonactinoidsolid3, 4, 5, 6, 7metallic1.751.75N/AN/AN/A604.5 kJ/mol225Np, 226Np, 227Np, 228Np, 229Np, 230Np, 231Np, 232Np, 233Np, 234Np, 235Np, 236Np, 237Np, 238Np, 239Np, 240Np, 241Np, 242Np, 243Np, 244NpAlphaEmissionSilverfN/A1.36N/A7640 °C4×103 °C917 K4273 K20.45 g/cm32, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2
94PuPlutonium[244][Rn] 5f6 7s21940Seaborgactinoidsolid3, 4, 5, 6, 7metallic1.751.75N/AN/A1584.7 kJ/mol228Pu, 229Pu, 230Pu, 231Pu, 232Pu, 233Pu, 234Pu, 235Pu, 236Pu, 237Pu, 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu, 243Pu, 244Pu, 245Pu, 246Pu, 247PuAlphaEmissionSilverfN/A1.28N/A7641 °C3230 °C913 K3503 K19.816 g/cm32, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2
95AmAmericium[243][Rn] 5f7 7s21944Seaborgactinoidsolid2, 3, 4, 5, 6metallic1.751.75N/AN/A1.12578 kJ/mol231Am, 232Am, 233Am, 234Am, 235Am, 236Am, 237Am, 238Am, 239Am, 240Am, 241Am, 242Am, 243Am, 244Am, 245Am, 246Am, 247Am, 248Am, 249AmAlphaEmissionSilverfN/A1.3N/A7994 °C2011 °C1449 K2284 KN/A2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 8, 2
96CmCurium[247][Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s21944Seaborgactinoidsolid3, 4metallicN/AN/AN/AN/A1.11581 kJ/mol233Cm, 234Cm, 235Cm, 236Cm, 237Cm, 238Cm, 239Cm, 240Cm, 241Cm, 242Cm, 243Cm, 244Cm, 245Cm, 246Cm, 247Cm, 248Cm, 249Cm, 250Cm, 251Cm, 252CmAlphaEmissionSilverfN/A1.3N/A71340 °C3110 °C1618 K3383 K13.51 g/cm32, 8, 18, 32, 25, 9, 2
97BkBerkelium[247][Rn] 5f9 7s21949Seaborgactinoidsolid3, 4metallicN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A601 kJ/mol235Bk, 236Bk, 237Bk, 238Bk, 239Bk, 240Bk, 241Bk, 242Bk, 243Bk, 244Bk, 245Bk, 246Bk, 247Bk, 248Bk, 249Bk, 250Bk, 251Bk, 252Bk, 253Bk, 254BkAlphaEmissionN/AfN/A1.3N/A7986 °CN/A1323 KN/A14.78 g/cm32, 8, 18, 32, 27, 8, 2
98CfCalifornium[251][Rn] 5f10 7s21950Seaborgactinoidsolid2, 3, 4metallicN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A608 kJ/mol237Cf, 238Cf, 239Cf, 240Cf, 241Cf, 242Cf, 243Cf, 244Cf, 245Cf, 246Cf, 247Cf, 248Cf, 249Cf, 250Cf, 251Cf, 252Cf, 253Cf, 254Cf, 255Cf, 256CfAlphaEmissionN/AfN/A1.3N/A7900 °CN/A1173 KN/A15.1 g/cm32, 8, 18, 32, 28, 8, 2
99EsEinsteinium[252][Rn] 5f11 7s21952Seaborgactinoidsolid2, 3Not AvailableN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A619 kJ/mol240Es, 241Es, 242Es, 243Es, 244Es, 245Es, 246Es, 247Es, 248Es, 249Es, 250Es, 251Es, 252Es, 253Es, 254Es, 255Es, 256Es, 257Es, 258EsAlphaEmissionN/AfN/A1.3N/A7860 °CN/A1133 KN/AN/A2, 8, 18, 32, 29, 8, 2
100FmFermium[257][Rn] 5f12 7s21952SeaborgactinoidNot Available2, 3Not AvailableN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A627 kJ/mol242Fm, 243Fm, 244Fm, 245Fm, 246Fm, 247Fm, 248Fm, 249Fm, 250Fm, 251Fm, 252Fm, 253Fm, 254Fm, 255Fm, 256Fm, 257Fm, 258Fm, 259Fm, 260FmAlphaEmissionN/AfN/A1.3N/A7N/AN/A1800 KN/AN/A2, 8, 18, 32, 30, 8, 2
101MdMendelevium[258][Rn] 5f13 7s21955SeaborgactinoidNot Available2, 3Not AvailableN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A635 kJ/mol245Md, 246Md, 247Md, 248Md, 249Md, 250Md, 251Md, 252Md, 253Md, 254Md, 255Md, 256Md, 257Md, 258Md, 259Md, 260Md, 261Md, 262MdAlphaEmissionN/AfN/A1.3N/A7N/AN/A1100 KN/AN/A2, 8, 18, 32, 31, 8, 2
102NoNobelium[259][Rn] 5f14 7s21958SeaborgactinoidNot Available2, 3Not AvailableN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A642 kJ/mol248No, 249No, 250No, 251No, 252No, 253No, 254No, 255No, 256No, 257No, 258No, 259No, 260No, 261No, 262No, 263No, 264NoAlphaEmissionN/AfN/A1.3N/A7N/AN/A1100 KN/AN/A2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 2
103LrLawrencium[262][Rn] 5f14 7s2 7p11961Ghiorsotransition metalNot Available3Not AvailableN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A251Lr, 252Lr, 253Lr, 254Lr, 255Lr, 256Lr, 257Lr, 258Lr, 259Lr, 260Lr, 261Lr, 262Lr, 263Lr, 264Lr, 265Lr, 266LrAlphaEmissionN/AdN/AN/A37N/AN/A1900 KN/AN/A2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 3
104RfRutherfordium[267][Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s21964/69Flerow oder Ghiorsotransition metalNot Available4Not AvailableN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A253Rf, 254Rf, 255Rf, 256Rf, 257Rf, 258Rf, 259Rf, 260Rf, 261Rf, 262Rf, 263Rf, 264Rf, 265Rf, 266Rf, 267Rf, 268RfAlphaEmissionN/AdN/AN/A47N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 2
105DbDubnium[268][Rn] 5f14 6d3 7s21967/70Flerow oder Ghiorsotransition metalNot AvailableNot AvailableNot AvailableN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A255Db, 256Db, 257Db, 258Db, 259Db, 260Db, 261Db, 262Db, 263Db, 264Db, 265Db, 266Db, 267Db, 268Db, 269Db, 270DbAlphaEmissionN/AdN/AN/A57N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 11, 2
106SgSeaborgium[271][Rn] 5f14 6d4 7s21974Oganessiantransition metalNot AvailableNot AvailableNot AvailableN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A258Sg, 259Sg, 260Sg, 261Sg, 262Sg, 263Sg, 264Sg, 265Sg, 266Sg, 267Sg, 268Sg, 269Sg, 270Sg, 271Sg, 272Sg, 273SgAlphaEmissionN/AdN/AN/A67N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 12, 2
107BhBohrium[272][Rn] 5f14 6d5 7s21976Oganessiantransition metalNot AvailableNot AvailableNot AvailableN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A260Bh, 261Bh, 262Bh, 263Bh, 264Bh, 265Bh, 266Bh, 267Bh, 268Bh, 269Bh, 270Bh, 271Bh, 272Bh, 273Bh, 274Bh, 275BhAlphaEmissionN/AdN/AN/A77N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 13, 2
108HsHassium[270][Rn] 5f14 6d6 7s21984Society for Heavy Ion Researchtransition metalNot AvailableNot AvailableNot AvailableN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A263Hs, 264Hs, 265Hs, 266Hs, 267Hs, 268Hs, 269Hs, 270Hs, 271Hs, 272Hs, 273Hs, 274Hs, 275Hs, 276Hs, 277HsAlphaEmissionN/AdN/AN/A87N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 14, 2
109MtMeitnerium[276][Rn] 5f14 6d7 7s21982Society for Heavy Ion Researchtransition metalNot AvailableNot AvailableNot AvailableN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A265Mt, 266Mt, 267Mt, 268Mt, 269Mt, 270Mt, 271Mt, 272Mt, 273Mt, 274Mt, 275Mt, 276Mt, 277Mt, 278Mt, 279MtAlphaEmissionN/AdN/AN/A97N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 15, 2 (?)
110DsDarmstadtium[281][Rn] 5f14 6d9 7s11994Society for Heavy Ion Researchtransition metalNot AvailableNot AvailableNot AvailableN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A267Ds, 268Ds, 269Ds, 270Ds, 271Ds, 272Ds, 273Ds, 274Ds, 275Ds, 276Ds, 277Ds, 278Ds, 279Ds, 280Ds, 281DsAlphaEmissionN/AdN/AN/A107N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 16, 2 (?)
111RgRoentgenium[280][Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s11994Society for Heavy Ion Researchtransition metalNot AvailableNot AvailableNot AvailableN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A272Rg, 273Rg, 274Rg, 275Rg, 276Rg, 277Rg, 278Rg, 279Rg, 280Rg, 281Rg, 282Rg, 283RgAlphaEmissionN/AdN/AN/A117N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 17, 2 (?)
112CnCopernicium[285][Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s21996Society for Heavy Ion Researchtransition metalNot AvailableNot AvailableNot AvailableN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A277Uub, 278Uub, 279Uub, 280Uub, 281Uub, 282Uub, 283Uub, 284Uub, 285UubAlphaEmissionN/AdN/AN/A127N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 2 (?)
113NhNihonium[284][Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p12003Not Availablepost-transition metalNot AvailableNot AvailableNot AvailableN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A283Uut, 284Uut, 285Uut, 286Uut, 287UutAlphaEmissionN/ApN/AN/A137N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 3 (?)
114FlFlerovium[289][Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p21998Not Availablepost-transition metalNot AvailableNot AvailableNot AvailableN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A285Uuq, 286Uuq, 287Uuq, 288Uuq, 289UuqAlphaEmissionN/ApN/AN/A147N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 4 (?)
115McMoscovium[288][Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p32003Not Availablepost-transition metalNot AvailableNot AvailableNot AvailableN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A287Uup, 288Uup, 289Uup, 290Uup, 291UupAlphaEmissionN/ApN/AN/A157N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 5 (?)
116LvLivermorium[293][Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p42000Not Availablepost-transition metalNot AvailableNot AvailableNot AvailableN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A289Uuh, 290Uuh, 291Uuh, 292UuhAlphaEmissionN/ApN/AN/A167N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 6 (?)
117TsTennessine[294][Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p52010Not Availablepost-transition metalNot AvailableNot AvailableNot AvailableN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/ApN/AN/A177N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 7 (?)
118OgOganesson[294][Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p62002Not Availablenoble gasNot AvailableNot AvailableNot AvailableN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A293UuoAlphaEmissionN/ApN/AN/A187N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 8 (?)

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I'm a physicist specializing in theoretical, computational and experimental condensed matter physics. I like to develop Physics related apps and softwares from time to time. Can code in most of the popular languages. Like to share my knowledge in Physics and applications using this Blog and a YouTube channel.

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